Natural Perfection or Divine Fiat, 2022
By: Joshua Parens
Title Natural Perfection or Divine Fiat
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 233–252
Categories Nicomachean ethics, Politics, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Joshua Parens
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
As a reader of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” one is struck from the beginning by how much he omits from his commentary. Typically, this would be taken to indicate that Averroes does not comprehend Plato's intention. Indeed, the author can seem at times to confirm what many readers assume—namely, that he would rather have commented on a work by Aristotle. We will try to show that his major omissions—that is, of books 1, (most of ) 6, and 10, and especially what he substitutes for these omissions—form a coherent pattern and ultimately reveal a profound commentary on the omitted passages. That coherent pattern is already set within the first few pages of the work. From the beginning he seems to focus on the place of the Republic in relation to practical science and theoretical science. This comes as little surprise in a commentary on a work devoted to what I would like to call the philosopher-king conceit. The Republic is at least in part Plato's consideration of the relation between theoretical and practical science, as encapsulated in the person of the philosopher-king. Although Socrates does not get around to the centrality of this theme until Republic book 5, Averroes is on it from the beginning. He does so in part in order to place his discussion of the Republic in relation to his commentary on the Nicomachean Ethics—putatively the more theoretical of the two works. Be that as it may, we are most interested in what ties together the omissions of books 1, 6, and 10—and especially what Averroes substitutes for those omissions. We hope to show that the golden thread running through what Averroes substitutes is the theme of human perfection, in at least two senses: the philosopher-king and immortality. In each case, there is some element in Plato's original that Averroes needs to take into another register (from conventionalism in book 1 to fiat transplanted into the Second Treatise; from separate forms in book 6 to the active intellect in the Second Treatise; and from immortality of the soul in book 10 to conjunction with the active intellect in the Second Treatise). In effect, all these omissions are drawn together in the Second Treatise. For that reason, eventually, we will comment more closely on the most relevant section of the Second Treatise (60.17–74.12).

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Les fragments arabes du Commentaire moyen d’Averroès à l’Éthique à Nicomaque, 2019
By: Frédérique Woerther
Title Les fragments arabes du Commentaire moyen d’Averroès à l’Éthique à Nicomaque
Type Article
Language French
Date 2019
Journal Oriens
Volume 47
Issue 3-4
Pages 244–312
Categories Commentary, Aristotle, Nicomachean ethics, Ethics
Author(s) Frédérique Woerther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Phantasia in Aristotle’s Ethics: Reception in the Arabic, Greek, Hebrew and Latin Traditions, 2019
By: Jakob Leth Fink (Ed.)
Title Phantasia in Aristotle’s Ethics: Reception in the Arabic, Greek, Hebrew and Latin Traditions
Type Edited Book
Language English
Date 2019
Publication Place London
Publisher Bloomsbury Publishing
Series Bloomsbury studies in the Aristotelian tradition
Categories Aristotle, Nicomachean ethics, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Jakob Leth Fink
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In the Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle suggests that a moral principle ‘does not immediately appear to the man who has been corrupted by pleasure or pain’. Phantasia in Aristotle’s Ethics investigates his claim and its reception in ancient and medieval Aristotelian traditions, including Arabic, Greek, Hebrew and Latin. While contemporary commentators on the Ethics have overlooked Aristotle’s remark, his ancient and medieval interpreters made substantial contributions towards a clarification of the claim’s meaning and relevance. Even when the hazards of transmission have left no explicit comments on this particular passage, as is the case in the Arabic tradition, medieval responders still offer valuable interpretations of phantasia (appearance) and its role in ethical deliberation and action. This volume casts light on these readings, showing how the distant voices from the medieval Arabic, Greek, Hebrew and Latin Aristotelian traditions still contribute to contemporary debate concerning phantasia, motivation and deliberation in Aristotle’s Ethics.

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Averroes’s Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, 2019
By: Frédérique Woerther
Title Averroes’s Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2019
Published in Phantasia in Aristotle’s Ethics: Reception in the Arabic, Greek, Hebrew and Latin Traditions
Pages 37–64
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, Nicomachean ethics, Transmission
Author(s) Frédérique Woerther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes’ Goals in the Paraphrase (Middle Commentary) of Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, 2019
By: Frédérique Woerther
Title Averroes’ Goals in the Paraphrase (Middle Commentary) of Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2019
Published in Interpreting Averroes. Critical Essays
Pages 218–236
Categories Commentary, Nicomachean ethics, Politics
Author(s) Frédérique Woerther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
A study of Averroes' paraphrase commentary on the Nicomachean Ethics, which is preserved only in Hebrew and Latin. Averroes here explores the relationship between ethics and political philosophy and identifies a theoretical strand within ethics, in order to show that practical philosophy is a proper science.

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Le Plaisir, le bonheur et l’acquisition des vertus, 2018
By: Averroes, Frédérique Woerther (Ed.),
Title Le Plaisir, le bonheur et l’acquisition des vertus
Type Monograph
Language French
Date 2018
Publication Place Leiden, Boston
Publisher Brill
Series Islamic Philosophy, Theology and Science. Texts and Studies
Volume 108
Categories Aristotle, Nicomachean ethics, Commentary
Author(s) Averroes , Frédérique Woerther ,
Publisher(s)
Translator(s) Frédérique Woerther
This volume contains the first edition of the Latin version of the Middle Commentary of Averroes on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics Book X, the original arabic version being lost. It is accompanied by an annotated French translation. The volume also contains a full study of the manuscript tradition of the Latin text and sets outs the principles used in the edition, which takes into account, where necessary, the Hebrew version of the Commentary. Two further studies complete the volume: the first is devoted to the genre of “Middle Commentary” (talḫīṣ); the second considers how Averroes uses an analogy with medicine to place ethics at the heart of practical philosophy, and how, in a manner that is foreign to Aristotle, he conceives of ethics as a “science.”

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Le statut «scientifique» de l’éthique d’après le Commentaire moyen d’Averroès à l’Éthique à Nicomaque d’Aristote, 2018
By: Frédérique Woerther
Title Le statut «scientifique» de l’éthique d’après le Commentaire moyen d’Averroès à l’Éthique à Nicomaque d’Aristote
Type Article
Language French
Date 2018
Journal Oriens
Volume 46
Issue No. 3/4
Pages 332–367
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, Nicomachean ethics
Author(s) Frédérique Woerther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Following an exegetical method similar to the one used two years earlier in his Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Rhetoric, Averroes usually stays very close to the Arabic version of the Nicomachean Ethics in his Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics. For he mostly reproduces Aristotle’s text without reformulating it. When necessary he nonetheless deletes the most obscure passages and develops those requiring more explanation, adding examples and replacing some terms with other terms, usually technical ones. By doing so, Averroes gives the ten Books of Aristotle’s treatise a greater unity and coherence. One of the commonest modifications that Averroes introduced in the Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics on the microstructural level is the use of the term scientia/ ḥokhma to refer to the content of the Ethics, whereas Aristotle’s text had no specific word for this. Likewise, Averroes makes clear in the first lines of his Commentary on the Republic that the discursive mode he is going to follow is the mode of scientific or theoretical arguments, not dialectical arguments. Hence, bestowing the status of a «science» on ethics (and on politics) clearly seems problematic – from a strictly Aristotelian perspective at any rate. This contribution seeks to understand, from Books I and X of Averroes’ Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, how the «scientific» status of ethics shall be understood, by observing in particular the inscription of the Ethics in the knowledge system as Averroes conceives it, and by raising the question of the addressee of his Middle Commentary, who obviously is no longer the Aristotelian figure of the legislator ἐπιειϰής.

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Les noms propres dans le Commentaire moyen à l’Éthique à Nicomaque d’Averroès. Contribution à une étude sur les traductions latine et hébraïque du Commentaire,, 2017
By: Frédérique Woerther
Title Les noms propres dans le Commentaire moyen à l’Éthique à Nicomaque d’Averroès. Contribution à une étude sur les traductions latine et hébraïque du Commentaire,
Type Article
Language French
Date 2017
Journal Bulletin de Philosophie Médiévale
Volume 59
Pages 3–32
Categories Commentary, Nicomachean ethics
Author(s) Frédérique Woerther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Les présentes remarques se proposent d’observer la façon dont les noms propres ont été traités par Averroès dans son Commentaire moyen à l’Éthique à Nicomaque (= CmEN), rédigé à partir de la traduction arabe du traité aristotélicien (ENar), dont une seule copie unique existe aujourd’hui, conservée dans la bibliothèque Quaraouiyine de Fès. Perdu dans sa version originale arabe, ce Commentaire n’existe – à l’exception d’une trentaine de petits fragments – que dans sa traduction latine, réalisée en 1240 par Hermann l’Allemand, et dans sa traduction hébraïque, achevée par Samuel de Marseille en 1340. Analyser l’attitude d’Averroès devant les noms propres de ENar, qui pour la plupart ont été translittérés par le traducteur arabe, entraîne par voie de conséquence un examen de la façon dont Hermann et Samuel ont à leur tour réagi face à des noms propres (quand ils ont été conservés par Averroès dans son Commentaire), dont ils ne connaissaient pas nécessairement les référents puisqu’ils appartiennent à une aire culturelle différente de la leur.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5125","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5125,"authors_free":[{"id":5900,"entry_id":5125,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1286,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Fr\u00e9d\u00e9rique Woerther","free_first_name":"Fr\u00e9d\u00e9rique","free_last_name":"Woerther","norm_person":{"id":1286,"first_name":"Fr\u00e9d\u00e9rique","last_name":"Woerther","full_name":"Fr\u00e9d\u00e9rique Woerther","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/13670932X","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=Fr\u00e9d\u00e9rique Woerther"}}],"entry_title":"Les noms propres dans le Commentaire moyen \u00e0 l\u2019\u00c9thique \u00e0 Nicomaque d\u2019Averro\u00e8s. Contribution \u00e0 une \u00e9tude sur les traductions latine et h\u00e9bra\u00efque du Commentaire,","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Les noms propres dans le Commentaire moyen \u00e0 l\u2019\u00c9thique \u00e0 Nicomaque d\u2019Averro\u00e8s. Contribution \u00e0 une \u00e9tude sur les traductions latine et h\u00e9bra\u00efque du Commentaire,"},"abstract":"Les pr\u00e9sentes remarques se proposent d\u2019observer la fa\u00e7on dont les noms propres ont \u00e9t\u00e9 trait\u00e9s par Averro\u00e8s dans son Commentaire moyen \u00e0 l\u2019\u00c9thique \u00e0 Nicomaque (= CmEN), r\u00e9dig\u00e9 \u00e0 partir de la traduction arabe du trait\u00e9 aristot\u00e9licien (ENar), dont une seule copie unique existe aujourd\u2019hui, conserv\u00e9e dans la biblioth\u00e8que Quaraouiyine de F\u00e8s. Perdu dans sa version originale arabe, ce Commentaire n\u2019existe \u2013 \u00e0 l\u2019exception d\u2019une trentaine de petits fragments \u2013 que dans sa traduction latine, r\u00e9alis\u00e9e en 1240 par Hermann l\u2019Allemand, et dans sa traduction h\u00e9bra\u00efque, achev\u00e9e par Samuel de Marseille en 1340. Analyser l\u2019attitude d\u2019Averro\u00e8s devant les noms propres de ENar, qui pour la plupart ont \u00e9t\u00e9 translitt\u00e9r\u00e9s par le traducteur arabe, entra\u00eene par voie de cons\u00e9quence un examen de la fa\u00e7on dont Hermann et Samuel ont \u00e0 leur tour r\u00e9agi face \u00e0 des noms propres (quand ils ont \u00e9t\u00e9 conserv\u00e9s par Averro\u00e8s dans son Commentaire), dont ils ne connaissaient pas n\u00e9cessairement les r\u00e9f\u00e9rents puisqu\u2019ils appartiennent \u00e0 une aire culturelle diff\u00e9rente de la leur.","btype":3,"date":"2017","language":"French","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1484\/J.BPM.5.115827","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":23,"category_name":"Commentary","link":"bib?categories[]=Commentary"},{"id":70,"category_name":"Nicomachean ethics","link":"bib?categories[]=Nicomachean ethics"}],"authors":[{"id":1286,"full_name":"Fr\u00e9d\u00e9rique Woerther","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":null,"article":{"id":5125,"journal_id":null,"journal_name":"Bulletin de Philosophie M\u00e9di\u00e9vale","volume":"59","issue":"","pages":"3\u201332"}},"sort":[2017]}

Les Excerpta de libro Aristotelis Ethicorum secundum translationem de arabico in latinum, 2016
By: Frédérique Woerther
Title Les Excerpta de libro Aristotelis Ethicorum secundum translationem de arabico in latinum
Type Article
Language French
Date 2016
Journal Archives d’Histoire Doctrinale et Littéraire du Moyen Âge
Volume 83
Pages 115–147
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, Ethics, Nicomachean ethics
Author(s) Frédérique Woerther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes' Middle Commentary on Book I of the Nicomachean Ethics, 2014
By: Steven Harvey, Frédérique Woerther
Title Averroes' Middle Commentary on Book I of the Nicomachean Ethics
Type Article
Language English
Date 2014
Journal Oriens
Volume 42
Issue 1-2
Pages 254-287
Categories Aristotle, Nicomachean ethics, Commentary
Author(s) Steven Harvey , Frédérique Woerther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The conventional view of the previous century that Averroes’ middle commentaries (talāḫīṣ) on Aristotle are all of the same form and style is no longer tenable. A full and accurate account of the similarities and differences among Averroes’ talāḫīṣ on Aristotle must consider all of them. Perhaps the least studied and least known of these middle commentaries is the one on the Nicomachean Ethics, a text which is extant today only in a critically edited medieval Hebrew translation and an as yet unedited medieval Latin translation. The two authors of the present article have each studied chapters of this commentary independently of each other and have reached different conclusions concerning its value. In this article they present a careful examination of the first book of Averroes’ commentary via its Hebrew translation and Latin translation (primarily through the two oldest and most reliable manuscripts of it) in comparison with the medieval Arabic translation of the Nicomachean Ethics that was used by Averroes (and in light of Aristotle’s Greek text). This study shows an Averroean middle commentary that is not very original and not particularly helpful, especially, for example, when compared to the quite different middle commentaries on Aristotle’s books on natural science. Indeed, he often seems to do little more than copy—not even paraphrase—the Arabic translation. On the other hand, Averroes does not hesitate to insert words as he copies in order to make the text clearer and easier to understand. Where lengthier explanations are needed, they too are attempted, at times in response to problematic translations in the Arabic text before him.

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Averroes' Middle Commentary on Book I of the Nicomachean Ethics, 2014
By: Steven Harvey, Frédérique Woerther
Title Averroes' Middle Commentary on Book I of the Nicomachean Ethics
Type Article
Language English
Date 2014
Journal Oriens
Volume 42
Issue 1-2
Pages 254-287
Categories Aristotle, Nicomachean ethics, Commentary
Author(s) Steven Harvey , Frédérique Woerther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The conventional view of the previous century that Averroes’ middle commentaries (talāḫīṣ) on Aristotle are all of the same form and style is no longer tenable. A full and accurate account of the similarities and differences among Averroes’ talāḫīṣ on Aristotle must consider all of them. Perhaps the least studied and least known of these middle commentaries is the one on the Nicomachean Ethics, a text which is extant today only in a critically edited medieval Hebrew translation and an as yet unedited medieval Latin translation. The two authors of the present article have each studied chapters of this commentary independently of each other and have reached different conclusions concerning its value. In this article they present a careful examination of the first book of Averroes’ commentary via its Hebrew translation and Latin translation (primarily through the two oldest and most reliable manuscripts of it) in comparison with the medieval Arabic translation of the Nicomachean Ethics that was used by Averroes (and in light of Aristotle’s Greek text). This study shows an Averroean middle commentary that is not very original and not particularly helpful, especially, for example, when compared to the quite different middle commentaries on Aristotle’s books on natural science. Indeed, he often seems to do little more than copy—not even paraphrase—the Arabic translation. On the other hand, Averroes does not hesitate to insert words as he copies in order to make the text clearer and easier to understand. Where lengthier explanations are needed, they too are attempted, at times in response to problematic translations in the Arabic text before him.

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Averroes’ Goals in the Paraphrase (Middle Commentary) of Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, 2019
By: Frédérique Woerther
Title Averroes’ Goals in the Paraphrase (Middle Commentary) of Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2019
Published in Interpreting Averroes. Critical Essays
Pages 218–236
Categories Commentary, Nicomachean ethics, Politics
Author(s) Frédérique Woerther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
A study of Averroes' paraphrase commentary on the Nicomachean Ethics, which is preserved only in Hebrew and Latin. Averroes here explores the relationship between ethics and political philosophy and identifies a theoretical strand within ethics, in order to show that practical philosophy is a proper science.

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Averroes’s Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, 2019
By: Frédérique Woerther
Title Averroes’s Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2019
Published in Phantasia in Aristotle’s Ethics: Reception in the Arabic, Greek, Hebrew and Latin Traditions
Pages 37–64
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, Nicomachean ethics, Transmission
Author(s) Frédérique Woerther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Le Plaisir, le bonheur et l’acquisition des vertus, 2018
By: Averroes, Frédérique Woerther (Ed.),
Title Le Plaisir, le bonheur et l’acquisition des vertus
Type Monograph
Language French
Date 2018
Publication Place Leiden, Boston
Publisher Brill
Series Islamic Philosophy, Theology and Science. Texts and Studies
Volume 108
Categories Aristotle, Nicomachean ethics, Commentary
Author(s) Averroes , Frédérique Woerther ,
Publisher(s)
Translator(s) Frédérique Woerther
This volume contains the first edition of the Latin version of the Middle Commentary of Averroes on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics Book X, the original arabic version being lost. It is accompanied by an annotated French translation. The volume also contains a full study of the manuscript tradition of the Latin text and sets outs the principles used in the edition, which takes into account, where necessary, the Hebrew version of the Commentary. Two further studies complete the volume: the first is devoted to the genre of “Middle Commentary” (talḫīṣ); the second considers how Averroes uses an analogy with medicine to place ethics at the heart of practical philosophy, and how, in a manner that is foreign to Aristotle, he conceives of ethics as a “science.”

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Le statut «scientifique» de l’éthique d’après le Commentaire moyen d’Averroès à l’Éthique à Nicomaque d’Aristote, 2018
By: Frédérique Woerther
Title Le statut «scientifique» de l’éthique d’après le Commentaire moyen d’Averroès à l’Éthique à Nicomaque d’Aristote
Type Article
Language French
Date 2018
Journal Oriens
Volume 46
Issue No. 3/4
Pages 332–367
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, Nicomachean ethics
Author(s) Frédérique Woerther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Following an exegetical method similar to the one used two years earlier in his Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Rhetoric, Averroes usually stays very close to the Arabic version of the Nicomachean Ethics in his Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics. For he mostly reproduces Aristotle’s text without reformulating it. When necessary he nonetheless deletes the most obscure passages and develops those requiring more explanation, adding examples and replacing some terms with other terms, usually technical ones. By doing so, Averroes gives the ten Books of Aristotle’s treatise a greater unity and coherence. One of the commonest modifications that Averroes introduced in the Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics on the microstructural level is the use of the term scientia/ ḥokhma to refer to the content of the Ethics, whereas Aristotle’s text had no specific word for this. Likewise, Averroes makes clear in the first lines of his Commentary on the Republic that the discursive mode he is going to follow is the mode of scientific or theoretical arguments, not dialectical arguments. Hence, bestowing the status of a «science» on ethics (and on politics) clearly seems problematic – from a strictly Aristotelian perspective at any rate. This contribution seeks to understand, from Books I and X of Averroes’ Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, how the «scientific» status of ethics shall be understood, by observing in particular the inscription of the Ethics in the knowledge system as Averroes conceives it, and by raising the question of the addressee of his Middle Commentary, who obviously is no longer the Aristotelian figure of the legislator ἐπιειϰής.

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Les Excerpta de libro Aristotelis Ethicorum secundum translationem de arabico in latinum, 2016
By: Frédérique Woerther
Title Les Excerpta de libro Aristotelis Ethicorum secundum translationem de arabico in latinum
Type Article
Language French
Date 2016
Journal Archives d’Histoire Doctrinale et Littéraire du Moyen Âge
Volume 83
Pages 115–147
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, Ethics, Nicomachean ethics
Author(s) Frédérique Woerther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Les fragments arabes du Commentaire moyen d’Averroès à l’Éthique à Nicomaque, 2019
By: Frédérique Woerther
Title Les fragments arabes du Commentaire moyen d’Averroès à l’Éthique à Nicomaque
Type Article
Language French
Date 2019
Journal Oriens
Volume 47
Issue 3-4
Pages 244–312
Categories Commentary, Aristotle, Nicomachean ethics, Ethics
Author(s) Frédérique Woerther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Les noms propres dans le Commentaire moyen à l’Éthique à Nicomaque d’Averroès. Contribution à une étude sur les traductions latine et hébraïque du Commentaire,, 2017
By: Frédérique Woerther
Title Les noms propres dans le Commentaire moyen à l’Éthique à Nicomaque d’Averroès. Contribution à une étude sur les traductions latine et hébraïque du Commentaire,
Type Article
Language French
Date 2017
Journal Bulletin de Philosophie Médiévale
Volume 59
Pages 3–32
Categories Commentary, Nicomachean ethics
Author(s) Frédérique Woerther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Les présentes remarques se proposent d’observer la façon dont les noms propres ont été traités par Averroès dans son Commentaire moyen à l’Éthique à Nicomaque (= CmEN), rédigé à partir de la traduction arabe du traité aristotélicien (ENar), dont une seule copie unique existe aujourd’hui, conservée dans la bibliothèque Quaraouiyine de Fès. Perdu dans sa version originale arabe, ce Commentaire n’existe – à l’exception d’une trentaine de petits fragments – que dans sa traduction latine, réalisée en 1240 par Hermann l’Allemand, et dans sa traduction hébraïque, achevée par Samuel de Marseille en 1340. Analyser l’attitude d’Averroès devant les noms propres de ENar, qui pour la plupart ont été translittérés par le traducteur arabe, entraîne par voie de conséquence un examen de la façon dont Hermann et Samuel ont à leur tour réagi face à des noms propres (quand ils ont été conservés par Averroès dans son Commentaire), dont ils ne connaissaient pas nécessairement les référents puisqu’ils appartiennent à une aire culturelle différente de la leur.

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Les translittérations dans la version latine du Commentaire moyen à l’Éthique à Nicomaque d’Averroès, 2014
By: Frédérique Woerther
Title Les translittérations dans la version latine du Commentaire moyen à l’Éthique à Nicomaque d’Averroès
Type Article
Language French
Date 2014
Journal Bulletin de Philosophie médiévale
Volume 56
Pages 61–89
Categories Commentary, Aristotle, Nicomachean ethics, Transmission
Author(s) Frédérique Woerther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The present discussion derives from a larger research project that concerns the medieval Latin translation of Averroes’ Middle Commentary on the Nicomachean Ethics. The translation was carried out by Hermann the German in Toledo in 1240. I am concerned here specifically with nine passages that are distributed over three chapters of the Commentary (II.7; IV.1-3) in which the Latin translation is sprinkled with transliterations based on Greek and Arabic terms. These transliterations, which are not glosses, can be understood on several levels, and these, in turn, raise questions about the boundary between transliteration proper and translation that borrows from the source language a term which is then integrated into the Latin lexicon in the form of a calque or ‘loan translation’. Examining these transliterations makes it possible, first, to show that the translator does not follow a uniform method throughout the text, which could imply the existence of several translators or several collaborators with distinct and exclusive areas of expertise, and second, to advance the hypothesis that a Greek copy of the Nicomachean Ethics was available at the time the translation was being executed in 1240. Finally, the discussion of transliterations makes it possible to confirm certain emendations proposed by Ullman in the Arabic edition of the Nicomachean Ethics published by Akasoy and Fidora, as well as to suggest a primary classification of the surviving manuscripts of the Latin version of the Middle Commentary on the Nicomachean Ethics.

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Natural Perfection or Divine Fiat, 2022
By: Joshua Parens
Title Natural Perfection or Divine Fiat
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 233–252
Categories Nicomachean ethics, Politics, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Joshua Parens
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
As a reader of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” one is struck from the beginning by how much he omits from his commentary. Typically, this would be taken to indicate that Averroes does not comprehend Plato's intention. Indeed, the author can seem at times to confirm what many readers assume—namely, that he would rather have commented on a work by Aristotle. We will try to show that his major omissions—that is, of books 1, (most of ) 6, and 10, and especially what he substitutes for these omissions—form a coherent pattern and ultimately reveal a profound commentary on the omitted passages. That coherent pattern is already set within the first few pages of the work. From the beginning he seems to focus on the place of the Republic in relation to practical science and theoretical science. This comes as little surprise in a commentary on a work devoted to what I would like to call the philosopher-king conceit. The Republic is at least in part Plato's consideration of the relation between theoretical and practical science, as encapsulated in the person of the philosopher-king. Although Socrates does not get around to the centrality of this theme until Republic book 5, Averroes is on it from the beginning. He does so in part in order to place his discussion of the Republic in relation to his commentary on the Nicomachean Ethics—putatively the more theoretical of the two works. Be that as it may, we are most interested in what ties together the omissions of books 1, 6, and 10—and especially what Averroes substitutes for those omissions. We hope to show that the golden thread running through what Averroes substitutes is the theme of human perfection, in at least two senses: the philosopher-king and immortality. In each case, there is some element in Plato's original that Averroes needs to take into another register (from conventionalism in book 1 to fiat transplanted into the Second Treatise; from separate forms in book 6 to the active intellect in the Second Treatise; and from immortality of the soul in book 10 to conjunction with the active intellect in the Second Treatise). In effect, all these omissions are drawn together in the Second Treatise. For that reason, eventually, we will comment more closely on the most relevant section of the Second Treatise (60.17–74.12).

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