Averroes (1179): Massgebliche Abhandlung, 2018
By: Mario C. Wintersteiger
Title Averroes (1179): Massgebliche Abhandlung
Type Book Section
Language German
Date 2018
Published in Religionsphilosophie und Religionskritik. Ein Handbuch
Pages 95–102
Categories Politics, Theology, Law
Author(s) Mario C. Wintersteiger
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Ibn Rushd and Natural Law: Mediating Human and Divine Law, 2017
By: Karen Taliaferro
Title Ibn Rushd and Natural Law: Mediating Human and Divine Law
Type Article
Language English
Date 2017
Journal Journal of Islamic and Muslim Studies
Volume 28
Issue 1
Pages 1–27
Categories Law, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Theology, Rhetoric
Author(s) Karen Taliaferro
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This article traces a Muslim tradition of natural law in the thought of Ibn Rushd. I argue that this notion of natural law enriches the concept of law and can mediate conflicts of human law and divine law in Islam. I discuss the ontology, then epistemology, of Ibn Rushd’s natural law, then situate the resultant conception of law within Islamic legal and theological contexts.

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The Decisive Treatise: The Connection Between Islamic Religious Law and Philosophy, 2017
By: Averroes, Massimo Campanini (Ed.)
Title The Decisive Treatise: The Connection Between Islamic Religious Law and Philosophy
Type Monograph
Language English
Date 2017
Publication Place Piscataway, NJ
Publisher Gorgias Press
Series Gorgias Islamic Studies
Volume 7
Categories Law, Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Averroes , Massimo Campanini
Publisher(s)
Translator(s) Massimo Campanini
The Decisive Treatise is perhaps the most controversial work of Averroes (Ibn Rushd, 1126-1198) and belongs to a trilogy which boldly represent the philosophical contribution to Islamic theology of this famous Andalusian commentator on Aristotle. The Decisive Treatise is a fatwa (a legal opinion) that the judge, Averroes, promulgated for his fellow Malikite jurists in order to demonstrate that the study of philosophy is not only licit from the point of view of religious law, but even mandatory for the skilled people. However, many subjects are dealt with in this comparatively short book: An epistemology aimed to show that philosophical truth and religious truth are not in contradiction; a sociology of knowledge pointing out that humans are classified in three classes (philosophers, theologians, common folk); a Qur’anic hermeneutics suggesting how to approach philosophically the Holy Book in agreement with religious requirements and linguistic rules.

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Averroes (d. 1198), The Decisive Treatise, 2016
By: Catarina Belo
Title Averroes (d. 1198), The Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2016
Published in The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Philosophy
Pages 278–295
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Theology, Politics, Law
Author(s) Catarina Belo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In his Decisive Treatise, Andalusian philosopher Averroes (1126–1198) analyzes the relation between philosophy and religion from an Islamic legal perspective. He emphasizes the obligation upon some Muslims to study philosophy and how philosophy can be considered one of the Islamic sciences. He mentions the significance of a nonliteral reading of the Qur’ān and defends the compatibility between Aristotelian philosophy and Islamic religion.

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The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Philosophy, 2016
By: Khaled El-Rouayheb (Ed.), Sabine Schmidtke (Ed.)
Title The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Philosophy
Type Edited Book
Language English
Date 2016
Publication Place New York, NY
Publisher Oxford University Press
Series Oxford handbooks
Categories Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Metaphysics, Law, Logic
Author(s) Khaled El-Rouayheb , Sabine Schmidtke
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The study of Islamic philosophy has recently entered a new and exciting phase. Both the received canon of Islamic philosophers and the grand narrative of the course of Islamic philosophy are in the process of being radically questioned and revised. The bulk of twentieth-century Western scholarship on Arabic or Islamic philosophy focused on the period from the ninth century to the twelfth. It is a measure of the transformation that is currently underway in the field that the present Handbook gives roughly equal weight to every century from the ninth to the twentieth. The Handbook differs from previous overviews in another significant way: It is work-centered rather than person- or theme-centered. This format is intended to give readers a better sense of what a work in Islamic philosophy looks like, and of the issues, concepts, and arguments that are at play in works belonging to various periods and subfields within Islamic philosophy.

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El filósofo como heredero de los profetas: el racionalismo islámico de Averroes, 2015
By: Diego R. Sarrió
Title El filósofo como heredero de los profetas: el racionalismo islámico de Averroes
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2015
Journal Al-Qantara
Volume 36
Issue 1
Pages 45–68
Categories Law, Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Diego R. Sarrió
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
El presente artículo argumenta que por debajo del marco jurídico del Faṣl al-maqāl subyace el deseo de conciliar los requerimientos de la razón con las exigencias de la fe. Averroes basa tal conciliación en la aceptación de una teoría hermenéutica según la cual, la Palabra Divina se dirige a cada ser humano según su capacidad intelectual. Por consiguiente, Averroes no excluye a los sabios del deber religioso de asentir a la verdad revelada. Contrariamente a interpretaciones exageradamente secularizadoras de su racionalismo, el artículo sugiere que Averroes concibió la filosofía en términos cuasi religiosos, como la obra más noble que se puede llevar a cabo en presencia de Dios, cuyo ejercicio convierte a sus practicantes en los legítimos «herederos de los profetas».

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The heritage of Arabo-Islamic learning: studies presented to Wadad Kadi, 2015
By: Maurice A. Pomerantz (Ed.), Aram A. Shahin (Ed.)
Title The heritage of Arabo-Islamic learning: studies presented to Wadad Kadi
Type Edited Book
Language English
Date 2015
Publication Place Leiden, Boston
Publisher Brill
Series Islamic History and Civilization
Volume 122
Categories Surveys, Theology, Law
Author(s) Maurice A. Pomerantz , Aram A. Shahin
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The Arabo-Islamic heritage of the Islam is among the richest, most diverse, and longest-lasting literary traditions in the world. Born from a culture and religion that valued teaching, Arabo-Islamic learning spread from the seventh century and has had a lasting impact until the present.In The Heritage of Arabo-Islamic Learning leading scholars around the world present twenty-five studies explore diverse areas of Arabo-Islamic heritage in honor of a renowned scholar and teacher, Dr. Wadad A. Kadi (Prof. Emerita, University of Chicago). The volume includes contributions in three main areas: History, Institutions, and the Use of Documentary Sources; Religion, Law, and Islamic Thought; Language, Literature, and Heritage which reflect Prof. Kadi’s contributions to the field.

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La pensée libre d'Averroès, 2013
By: Angèle Kremer Marietti
Title La pensée libre d'Averroès
Type Article
Language French
Date 2013
Journal Analecta Husserliana
Volume 114
Pages 371-382
Categories Law, Theology
Author(s) Angèle Kremer Marietti
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
With “La pensée libre d’Averroès”, I wished to join the important themes of Philosophy and Religion as they are joined in Averroès’ thought, against the most conservative elements within Muslim societies, which disliked what appeared to be non-Muslim influences. Ibn Rushd (Averroès) wanted to encourage the study of philosophy, because he was sensitive to the increasing tensions that led to his banishment. Though written before his exile his DECISIVE TREATISE provides a defence for philosophers charged with unbelief. Therefore I took an interest in four approaches to Ibn Rusch’s free thought. The first one was the distinction and relation between revelation and philosophy. Ibn Rushd’s Decisive Treatise begins with the contention that Law commands the study of philosophy. Ibn Rushd based on some Quranic verses, such as “Reflect, you have a vision” (59.2) and “they give thought to the creation of heaven and earth” (3:191), that command human intellectual reflection upon God and his creation. Such obligation exists in religion, then a person who has the capacity of “natural intelligence” and “religious integrity” must begin to study philosophy. Averroès thought that philosophy could enlighten revelation, when this last might be difficult to be understood for human minds. The second point I treat is Averroès’s thought that written Law (scripture, in e. Qur’an) and spoken law could be complementary each other. The Law speaks of three ways for humans to discover truth and interpret scripture: the demonstrative, the dialectical and the rhetorical. Therefore there are philosophers, theologians and the common masses. Ibn Rushd thought that demonstrative truth cannot conflict with scripture, because God gave various meanings and interpretations. Besides, the early Muslim community affirmed that scripture had both an apparent meaning and an inner meaning. Also, if it occurs that there is no consensus about a particular passage, its meaning is free for interpretation. My third point concerns the precise analysis of what is letter and what is spirit or “sense” -as the contemporary philosophers ans phenomenologues think now- on the real meaning of this letter: the sense or the way that the letter must be understood. Finally may be joined the way of right thinking, or what could be the special form of procedure with its results. In the fourth point, I refer to another treatise, on the doctrine of God known as the EXPOSITION OF THE METHODS OF PROOF CONCERNING THE BELIEFS OF THE COMMUNITY. Ibn Rushd then wanted to examine the religious doctrines that are held by the public and to determine if any of the many doctrines expounded by the different sects were the intention of the “lawgiver”. Meanwhile, he identified sects that have distorted the scriptures and developed innovative doctrines not compatible with Islam. Some arguments are examined: the first is the argument of Providence, in which one can observe that everything in the universe serves the purpose of humanity. The second is the argument of invention of plants and animals. Then he tried to explain the nature and attributes of God.

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The Intention of the Law and the Lawgiver in Averroes's Decisive Treatise, 2011
By: Rima Pavalko
Title The Intention of the Law and the Lawgiver in Averroes's Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2011
Published in La lumière de l'intellect. La pensée scientifique et philosophique d'Averroès dans son temps. Actes du IVe colloque international de la SIHSPAI (Société internationale d'histoire des sciences et de la philosophie arabes et islamiques). Cordoue, 9–12 décembre 1998
Pages 487–492
Categories Law, Theology
Author(s) Rima Pavalko
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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"For Truth Does Not Oppose Truth". The Agreement of Divine Law and Philosophy in Averroës' The Book of the Decisive Treatise (Kitab Fasl al-Maqal), 2010
By: Terence J. Kleven
Title "For Truth Does Not Oppose Truth". The Agreement of Divine Law and Philosophy in Averroës' The Book of the Decisive Treatise (Kitab Fasl al-Maqal)
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2010
Published in Political Islam from Muhammad to Ahmadinejad. Defenders, Detractors, and Definitions
Pages 225–236
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Terence J. Kleven
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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"For Truth Does Not Oppose Truth". The Agreement of Divine Law and Philosophy in Averroës' The Book of the Decisive Treatise (Kitab Fasl al-Maqal), 2010
By: Terence J. Kleven
Title "For Truth Does Not Oppose Truth". The Agreement of Divine Law and Philosophy in Averroës' The Book of the Decisive Treatise (Kitab Fasl al-Maqal)
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2010
Published in Political Islam from Muhammad to Ahmadinejad. Defenders, Detractors, and Definitions
Pages 225–236
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Terence J. Kleven
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes (1179): Massgebliche Abhandlung, 2018
By: Mario C. Wintersteiger
Title Averroes (1179): Massgebliche Abhandlung
Type Book Section
Language German
Date 2018
Published in Religionsphilosophie und Religionskritik. Ein Handbuch
Pages 95–102
Categories Politics, Theology, Law
Author(s) Mario C. Wintersteiger
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes (d. 1198), The Decisive Treatise, 2016
By: Catarina Belo
Title Averroes (d. 1198), The Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2016
Published in The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Philosophy
Pages 278–295
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Theology, Politics, Law
Author(s) Catarina Belo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In his Decisive Treatise, Andalusian philosopher Averroes (1126–1198) analyzes the relation between philosophy and religion from an Islamic legal perspective. He emphasizes the obligation upon some Muslims to study philosophy and how philosophy can be considered one of the Islamic sciences. He mentions the significance of a nonliteral reading of the Qur’ān and defends the compatibility between Aristotelian philosophy and Islamic religion.

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Die entscheidende Abhandlung und die Urteilsfällung über das Verhältnis von Gesetz und Philosophie. Arabisch-deutsch. Mit einer Einleitung und kommentierdenden Anmerkungen, 2009
By: Averroes,
Title Die entscheidende Abhandlung und die Urteilsfällung über das Verhältnis von Gesetz und Philosophie. Arabisch-deutsch. Mit einer Einleitung und kommentierdenden Anmerkungen
Type Monograph
Language undefined
Date 2009
Publication Place Hamburg
Publisher Meiner
Series Philosophische Bibliothek
Volume 600
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Law, Theology
Author(s) Averroes ,
Publisher(s)
Translator(s) Franz Schupp

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Discurso decisivo sobre a harmonia entre religião e a filosofia, 2006
By: Averroes
Title Discurso decisivo sobre a harmonia entre religião e a filosofia
Type Monograph
Language undefined
Date 2006
Publication Place Lisbon
Publisher Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Averroes
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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El filósofo como heredero de los profetas: el racionalismo islámico de Averroes, 2015
By: Diego R. Sarrió
Title El filósofo como heredero de los profetas: el racionalismo islámico de Averroes
Type Article
Language Spanish
Date 2015
Journal Al-Qantara
Volume 36
Issue 1
Pages 45–68
Categories Law, Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Diego R. Sarrió
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
El presente artículo argumenta que por debajo del marco jurídico del Faṣl al-maqāl subyace el deseo de conciliar los requerimientos de la razón con las exigencias de la fe. Averroes basa tal conciliación en la aceptación de una teoría hermenéutica según la cual, la Palabra Divina se dirige a cada ser humano según su capacidad intelectual. Por consiguiente, Averroes no excluye a los sabios del deber religioso de asentir a la verdad revelada. Contrariamente a interpretaciones exageradamente secularizadoras de su racionalismo, el artículo sugiere que Averroes concibió la filosofía en términos cuasi religiosos, como la obra más noble que se puede llevar a cabo en presencia de Dios, cuyo ejercicio convierte a sus practicantes en los legítimos «herederos de los profetas».

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Geloof en wetenschap in de Islam. Averroes' "Het beslissende woord", 2006
By: Averroes,
Title Geloof en wetenschap in de Islam. Averroes' "Het beslissende woord"
Type Monograph
Language undefined
Date 2006
Publication Place Kampen
Publisher Klement
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Averroes ,
Publisher(s)
Translator(s) Remke Kruk

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Ibn Rushd and Natural Law: Mediating Human and Divine Law, 2017
By: Karen Taliaferro
Title Ibn Rushd and Natural Law: Mediating Human and Divine Law
Type Article
Language English
Date 2017
Journal Journal of Islamic and Muslim Studies
Volume 28
Issue 1
Pages 1–27
Categories Law, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Theology, Rhetoric
Author(s) Karen Taliaferro
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This article traces a Muslim tradition of natural law in the thought of Ibn Rushd. I argue that this notion of natural law enriches the concept of law and can mediate conflicts of human law and divine law in Islam. I discuss the ontology, then epistemology, of Ibn Rushd’s natural law, then situate the resultant conception of law within Islamic legal and theological contexts.

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Il Kašf ʿan manāhiğ di Averroè. Confronto fra la versione di Abraham De Balmes e le citazioni di Calo Calonimo nel De mundi creatione, 2004
By: Silvia Di Donato
Title Il Kašf ʿan manāhiğ di Averroè. Confronto fra la versione di Abraham De Balmes e le citazioni di Calo Calonimo nel De mundi creatione
Type Article
Language Italian
Date 2004
Journal Materia Giudaica
Volume 9
Issue 1–2
Pages 241–248
Categories Law, Theology
Author(s) Silvia Di Donato
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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La pensée libre d'Averroès, 2013
By: Angèle Kremer Marietti
Title La pensée libre d'Averroès
Type Article
Language French
Date 2013
Journal Analecta Husserliana
Volume 114
Pages 371-382
Categories Law, Theology
Author(s) Angèle Kremer Marietti
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
With “La pensée libre d’Averroès”, I wished to join the important themes of Philosophy and Religion as they are joined in Averroès’ thought, against the most conservative elements within Muslim societies, which disliked what appeared to be non-Muslim influences. Ibn Rushd (Averroès) wanted to encourage the study of philosophy, because he was sensitive to the increasing tensions that led to his banishment. Though written before his exile his DECISIVE TREATISE provides a defence for philosophers charged with unbelief. Therefore I took an interest in four approaches to Ibn Rusch’s free thought. The first one was the distinction and relation between revelation and philosophy. Ibn Rushd’s Decisive Treatise begins with the contention that Law commands the study of philosophy. Ibn Rushd based on some Quranic verses, such as “Reflect, you have a vision” (59.2) and “they give thought to the creation of heaven and earth” (3:191), that command human intellectual reflection upon God and his creation. Such obligation exists in religion, then a person who has the capacity of “natural intelligence” and “religious integrity” must begin to study philosophy. Averroès thought that philosophy could enlighten revelation, when this last might be difficult to be understood for human minds. The second point I treat is Averroès’s thought that written Law (scripture, in e. Qur’an) and spoken law could be complementary each other. The Law speaks of three ways for humans to discover truth and interpret scripture: the demonstrative, the dialectical and the rhetorical. Therefore there are philosophers, theologians and the common masses. Ibn Rushd thought that demonstrative truth cannot conflict with scripture, because God gave various meanings and interpretations. Besides, the early Muslim community affirmed that scripture had both an apparent meaning and an inner meaning. Also, if it occurs that there is no consensus about a particular passage, its meaning is free for interpretation. My third point concerns the precise analysis of what is letter and what is spirit or “sense” -as the contemporary philosophers ans phenomenologues think now- on the real meaning of this letter: the sense or the way that the letter must be understood. Finally may be joined the way of right thinking, or what could be the special form of procedure with its results. In the fourth point, I refer to another treatise, on the doctrine of God known as the EXPOSITION OF THE METHODS OF PROOF CONCERNING THE BELIEFS OF THE COMMUNITY. Ibn Rushd then wanted to examine the religious doctrines that are held by the public and to determine if any of the many doctrines expounded by the different sects were the intention of the “lawgiver”. Meanwhile, he identified sects that have distorted the scriptures and developed innovative doctrines not compatible with Islam. Some arguments are examined: the first is the argument of Providence, in which one can observe that everything in the universe serves the purpose of humanity. The second is the argument of invention of plants and animals. Then he tried to explain the nature and attributes of God.

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