Ficino und Averroes. Ein vorläufiger Kommentar zu Ficinos Auseinandersetzung mit Averroes im Buch XV der Theologia Platonica, 2021
By: Thomas Leinkauf
Title Ficino und Averroes. Ein vorläufiger Kommentar zu Ficinos Auseinandersetzung mit Averroes im Buch XV der Theologia Platonica
Type Book Section
Language German
Date 2021
Published in Averroism between the 15th and 17th Century
Pages 9–79
Categories Renaissance, Tradition and Reception, Plato
Author(s) Thomas Leinkauf
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Echoes of Averroes in Renaissance Platonism: Cardinal Bessarion, 2021
By: Jozef Matula
Title Echoes of Averroes in Renaissance Platonism: Cardinal Bessarion
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2021
Published in Averroism between the 15th and 17th Century
Pages 116–150
Categories Plato, Renaissance, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Jozef Matula
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Jewish Socratic Questions in an Age without Plato: Permitting and Forbitting OpenInquiry in 12-15th Century Europe and North Africa, 2021
By: Yehuda Halper
Title Jewish Socratic Questions in an Age without Plato: Permitting and Forbitting OpenInquiry in 12-15th Century Europe and North Africa
Type Monograph
Language English
Date 2021
Publication Place Leiden
Publisher Brill
Series Maimonides Library of Philosophy and Religion
Volume 1
Categories Plato, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Yehuda Halper examines Jewish depictions of Socrates and Socratic questioning of the divine among European and North African Jews of the 12th-15th centuries. Without direct access to Plato, their understanding of Socrates is indirect, based on legendary material, on fragmentary quotations from Plato, or on Aristotle. Out of these sources, Jewish authors of this period formed two distinct views of Socrates: one as a wise, ascetic, monotheist, and the other as a vocal skeptic. The latter view has its roots in Plato's Apology where Socrates describes his divine mandate to question all knowledge, including knowledge of the divine. After exploring how this and similar questions arise in the works of Judah Halevi and the Hebrew Averroes, Halper traces how such open-questioning of the divine arises in the works of Maimonides, Jacob Anatoli, Gersonides, and Abraham Bibago.

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The Cambridge Platonists and Averroes, 2013
By: Sarah Hutton
Title The Cambridge Platonists and Averroes
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2013
Published in Renaissance Averroism and Its Aftermath: Arabic Philosophy in Early Modern Europe
Pages 197–212
Categories Plato, Averroism, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Sarah Hutton
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The ‘Averroism’ which figures in my chapter is a radically attenuated version of the philosophy of Ibn Rushd – Averroism as represented by a single doctrine imputed to the Commentator, namely the idea of a single soul, common to all human beings. The subject of my chapter has less, therefore to do with the thought of Averroes in its later reception or manifestation, and more to do with an idea of Averroism which was current in seventeenth-century England. This is particularly true of the Cambridge Platonists for whom the Averroist doctrine of the intellectus agens is the key doctrine which they associate with Averroes and which they understood as a doctrine of a ‘single soul’ or ‘common soul’. The only one of their number to offer anything like an extensive critique of Averroes was Henry More (1614–1687). Although he too was primarily concerned with the Averroistic conception of the intellectus agens, his response is distinctive for his concern with the Italian Averroists of recent times, Girolamo Cardano, Pietro Pomponazzi and Giulio Cesare Vanini. Even though the Cambridge Platonists’ views on the intellectus agens tell us more about themselves than about Averroes, their limited focus is nevertheless revealing of currents of diffusion of Averroistic ideas, and of the presence of Averroes even in the new waters of early modern philosophy. As I shall argue later, there is an important sense in which More’s partial and distorted conception of the philosophy of Ibn Rushd contributed to a new conception of the self centred on consciousness. My chapter will offer a brief survey of identifiable references to Averroes in the work the Cambridge Platonists, starting with three Emmanuel College men, John Smith (1618–1652), Nathaniel Culverwell (1619–1651) and Ralph Cudworth (1617–1688). I shall then discuss Henry More, to whom the major part of this chapter will be devoted. But before discussing the Cambridge school, a few words on the background.

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Echoes of Averroes in Renaissance Platonism: Cardinal Bessarion, 2021
By: Jozef Matula
Title Echoes of Averroes in Renaissance Platonism: Cardinal Bessarion
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2021
Published in Averroism between the 15th and 17th Century
Pages 116–150
Categories Plato, Renaissance, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Jozef Matula
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Ficino und Averroes. Ein vorläufiger Kommentar zu Ficinos Auseinandersetzung mit Averroes im Buch XV der Theologia Platonica, 2021
By: Thomas Leinkauf
Title Ficino und Averroes. Ein vorläufiger Kommentar zu Ficinos Auseinandersetzung mit Averroes im Buch XV der Theologia Platonica
Type Book Section
Language German
Date 2021
Published in Averroism between the 15th and 17th Century
Pages 9–79
Categories Renaissance, Tradition and Reception, Plato
Author(s) Thomas Leinkauf
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Jewish Socratic Questions in an Age without Plato: Permitting and Forbitting OpenInquiry in 12-15th Century Europe and North Africa, 2021
By: Yehuda Halper
Title Jewish Socratic Questions in an Age without Plato: Permitting and Forbitting OpenInquiry in 12-15th Century Europe and North Africa
Type Monograph
Language English
Date 2021
Publication Place Leiden
Publisher Brill
Series Maimonides Library of Philosophy and Religion
Volume 1
Categories Plato, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Yehuda Halper examines Jewish depictions of Socrates and Socratic questioning of the divine among European and North African Jews of the 12th-15th centuries. Without direct access to Plato, their understanding of Socrates is indirect, based on legendary material, on fragmentary quotations from Plato, or on Aristotle. Out of these sources, Jewish authors of this period formed two distinct views of Socrates: one as a wise, ascetic, monotheist, and the other as a vocal skeptic. The latter view has its roots in Plato's Apology where Socrates describes his divine mandate to question all knowledge, including knowledge of the divine. After exploring how this and similar questions arise in the works of Judah Halevi and the Hebrew Averroes, Halper traces how such open-questioning of the divine arises in the works of Maimonides, Jacob Anatoli, Gersonides, and Abraham Bibago.

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The Cambridge Platonists and Averroes, 2013
By: Sarah Hutton
Title The Cambridge Platonists and Averroes
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2013
Published in Renaissance Averroism and Its Aftermath: Arabic Philosophy in Early Modern Europe
Pages 197–212
Categories Plato, Averroism, Tradition and Reception
Author(s) Sarah Hutton
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The ‘Averroism’ which figures in my chapter is a radically attenuated version of the philosophy of Ibn Rushd – Averroism as represented by a single doctrine imputed to the Commentator, namely the idea of a single soul, common to all human beings. The subject of my chapter has less, therefore to do with the thought of Averroes in its later reception or manifestation, and more to do with an idea of Averroism which was current in seventeenth-century England. This is particularly true of the Cambridge Platonists for whom the Averroist doctrine of the intellectus agens is the key doctrine which they associate with Averroes and which they understood as a doctrine of a ‘single soul’ or ‘common soul’. The only one of their number to offer anything like an extensive critique of Averroes was Henry More (1614–1687). Although he too was primarily concerned with the Averroistic conception of the intellectus agens, his response is distinctive for his concern with the Italian Averroists of recent times, Girolamo Cardano, Pietro Pomponazzi and Giulio Cesare Vanini. Even though the Cambridge Platonists’ views on the intellectus agens tell us more about themselves than about Averroes, their limited focus is nevertheless revealing of currents of diffusion of Averroistic ideas, and of the presence of Averroes even in the new waters of early modern philosophy. As I shall argue later, there is an important sense in which More’s partial and distorted conception of the philosophy of Ibn Rushd contributed to a new conception of the self centred on consciousness. My chapter will offer a brief survey of identifiable references to Averroes in the work the Cambridge Platonists, starting with three Emmanuel College men, John Smith (1618–1652), Nathaniel Culverwell (1619–1651) and Ralph Cudworth (1617–1688). I shall then discuss Henry More, to whom the major part of this chapter will be devoted. But before discussing the Cambridge school, a few words on the background.

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