Did Maimonides Recommend Reading Averroes’ Commentaries on Aristotle?, 2021
By: Steven Harvey
Title Did Maimonides Recommend Reading Averroes’ Commentaries on Aristotle?
Type Article
Language English
Date 2021
Journal Jewish Studies Quarterly
Volume 28
Issue 2
Pages 159–190
Categories Maimonides, Commentary
Author(s) Steven Harvey
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
An article published in 2016 by Doron Forte claimed that the universally cited version of the concluding bibliographical section of Maimonides' letter to the translator of the Guide of the Perplexed, Samuel Ibn Tibbon, is both late and corrupt (Jewish Studies Quarterly 23). This claim entails that Maimonides did not recommend Averroes' commentaries on Aristotle in the letter. The current paper argues against this claim. It comprises seven considerations: two philological (based on testimonia Forte chose to ignore), two terminological and three just common sense. I present these considerations as complementary, one supporting the other, that together make clear that the most-often cited version of the letter is very old, the most reliable and likely the most authentic version. In fact, current evidence now points to Ibn Tibbon as the translator of this version, which shows that Maimonides indeed recommended Averroes' commentaries in this letter.

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La position de Zabarella vis-à-vis d’Averroès dans son Commentaire sur le De anima, 2021
By: Jules Janssens
Title La position de Zabarella vis-à-vis d’Averroès dans son Commentaire sur le De anima
Type Article
Language French
Date 2021
Journal Mélanges de l’Université Saint-Joseph
Volume 68
Pages 105–135
Categories Renaissance, Tradition and Reception, Commentary, De anima
Author(s) Jules Janssens
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Dans son commentaire sur le De anima d’Aristote Zabarella fait un usage non négligeable du Grand Commentaire sur le même ouvrage d’Averroès, le grand penseur andalou. On a pris l’habitude de considérer que Zabarella n’a pas pu finaliser son commentaire, étant donné qu’il fut publié à titre posthume. Il s’agirait donc d’un ouvrage incomplet. Toutefois, si on tient compte du fait que Zabarella s’intéresse avant tout, voire presque exclusivement, à l’étude de l’âme humaine, tout indique qu’il a consciemment choisi de ne pas commenter certains chapitres de l’ouvrage du Stagirite. Quant à l’impact d’Averroès sur la doctrine de l’âme exposée par Zabarella, elle a été diversement évaluée dans la recherche contemporaine, mais dans l’ensemble on y perçoit une attitude fortement critique du dernier envers le premier. Il est nécessaire de nuancer ce jugement. En effet, sur la base de trois fragments, répartis sur les trois livres, la présente recherche met en lumière qu’Averroès est considéré par Zabarella comme une vraie autorité, « auctoritas » ; que Zabarella souscrit parfois pleinement à l’interprétation du maître arabe ; et, enfin, que Zabarella explique certaines explications « erronées » de ce dernier comme l’effet inévitable de la traduction fautive du texte aristotélicien dont Averroès disposait. En somme, l’attitude de Zabarella vis-à-vis d’Averroès s’avère complexe, évitant aussi bien l’excès d’un rejet total que celui d’une acceptation aveugle.

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Relation as Key to God’s Knowledge of Particulars in the Tahāfut al- tahāfut and the Damīma: A Cross-talk between Averroes, al-Ghazālī and Avicenna, 2020
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title Relation as Key to God’s Knowledge of Particulars in the Tahāfut al- tahāfut and the Damīma: A Cross-talk between Averroes, al-Ghazālī and Avicenna
Type Article
Language English
Date 2020
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 20
Issue 1
Pages 1–26
Categories Avicenna, al-Ġazālī, Commentary
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This article deals with the divine knowledge of particulars in Averroes’ Tahāfut al-tahāfut and Ḍamīma. It examines how the concept of relation, generally neglected, is at the heart of the dispute between Avicenna, al-Ġazālī, and the Commentator. In al-Ġazālī’s eyes, Avicenna's misconception of divine knowledge “in a universal way” is based on a misuse of relation in the case of God's knowledge. If particulars change and God does not, his knowledge of particulars, insofar as it undergoes change, can be considered a pure relation without ontological consequences. Averroes contests both al-Ġazālī’s criticism and his proposal, despite the fact that, for different reasons involving the coming-to-be of human knowledge, he too employs the notion of pure relation in his Long Commentary on the Physics.

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The Contention between Secular and Revealed Law: Analyzing Ibn Rushd’s Solution to the Problem of the “Virtuous Society”, 2019
By: Jaan S. Islam
Title The Contention between Secular and Revealed Law: Analyzing Ibn Rushd’s Solution to the Problem of the “Virtuous Society”
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal Journal of Islamic and Muslim Studies
Volume 4
Issue 1
Pages 43–65
Categories Politics, Law, Commentary, Plato
Author(s) Jaan S. Islam
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This article is an analysis of the political thought of Ibn Rushd and its significance for the current conflict in Islamic political thought between liberal, secular and conservative Islamist thinkers over the meaning of the “virtuous society” and how it can be implemented. It is argued that the thought of Ibn Rushd offers a concept of the virtuous society that reconciles secular law and religious Sharī‘a law. The article analyzes Ibn Rushd’s Commentary on Plato’s Republic, and assesses it as potentially being able to reconcile the philosophical conflict between logically discerned law and revealed law. It is contended that the separation between “religious” and “political” (i.e., philosophical) domains often attributed to Ibn Rushd does not fully consider the entirety of Ibn Rushd’s writings and interprets his works without regard for their historical and religious contextual significance.

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Averroes’ Rewrite of Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ: Establishing the Plain Meaning of the Text in the Middle Commentary, 2019
By: Yehuda Halper
Title Averroes’ Rewrite of Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ: Establishing the Plain Meaning of the Text in the Middle Commentary
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal Recherches de Théologie et Philosophie Médiévales
Volume 86
Issue 2
Pages 259–281
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, Metaphysics
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes’ Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ provides a rewrite of Aristotle’s text that was apparently intended to convey the plain meaning of the text to a general, though at least somewhat educated, audience. Such a commentary was necessary because ᾿Usṭāṯ’s ninth-century Arabic translation was insufficient in many respects for conveying Aristotle’s ideas into Arabic. Accordingly, Averroes’ Middle Commentary sought to rephrase and rewrite the text in such a way as to clarify the text, correct apparent errors in it, simplify the text, and add short explanations to it. This article offers a philological characterization of the Middle Commentary that should be an aid for reading the text and comparing it with other commentaries, especially Averroes’ Long Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ.

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Ibn Rushd and Aquinas on God’s Causal Omniscience, 2019
By: Stephen Ogden
Title Ibn Rushd and Aquinas on God’s Causal Omniscience
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal The Muslim World
Volume 109
Issue 4
Pages 595–614
Categories Thomas, Metaphysics, Aristotle, Commentary, Theology
Author(s) Stephen Ogden
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Les fragments arabes du Commentaire moyen d’Averroès à l’Éthique à Nicomaque, 2019
By: Frédérique Woerther
Title Les fragments arabes du Commentaire moyen d’Averroès à l’Éthique à Nicomaque
Type Article
Language French
Date 2019
Journal Oriens
Volume 47
Issue 3-4
Pages 244–312
Categories Commentary, Aristotle, Nicomachean ethics, Ethics
Author(s) Frédérique Woerther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes and the Philosophical Account of Prophecy, 2018
By: Richard C. Taylor
Title Averroes and the Philosophical Account of Prophecy
Type Article
Language English
Date 2018
Journal Studia graeco-arabica
Volume 8
Pages 287–304
Categories Metaphysics, Commentary, Natural Philosophy
Author(s) Richard C. Taylor
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Prophecy is conspicuous by its complete absence from all three of the commentaries on De Anima by Averroes. However, prophecy and philosophical metaphysics are discussed by him in his Commentary on the Parva Naturalia, a work written before his methodological work on philosophy and religion, the Faṣl al-maqāl, generally held to have been written ca. 1179-1180. The analyses and remarks of Averroes presented in that Commentary have been characterized by Herbert Davidson as “extremely radical” to the extent that “The term prophet would, on this reading, mean nothing more than the human author of Scripture; and the term revelation would mean a high level of philosophical knowledge”. In the present article I discuss Averroes on method in matters of religion and philosophy as well as prophecy in philosophically argumentative works and in dialectical works, with particular consideration of the reasoning of his Commentary on the Parva Naturalia. I conclude that Averroes found in philosophy and its sciences the most complete and precise truth content and highest levels of knowledge and understanding and from them constructed his worldview, while he found prophecy and religion to be like an Aristotelian practical science in that they concern good and right conduct in the achievement of an end attained in action, not truths to be known for their own sake.

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Averroès et l'intellect matériel diaphane - Remarques sur une analogie variable, 2018
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title Averroès et l'intellect matériel diaphane - Remarques sur une analogie variable
Type Article
Language French
Date 2018
Journal Recherches de Théologie et Philosophie Médiévales
Volume 85
Issue 2
Pages 261–284
Categories Commentary, De anima
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This paper studies the analogy set forth by Averroes in his Great Commentary on the De anima between the material intellect and the transparent medium. The overall context of the present inquiry is the 'question of Theophrastus' concerning the nature of the material intellect. The paper argues that the analogy between material intellect and transparent medium arises because, just like the transparent medium, the material intellect’s functioning requires a prior actualization: just as colors shine through the transparent medium only insofar as it is itself actually illuminated, the material intellect can receive intelligible forms only insofar as it is fundamentally actualized by the agent intellect. The aim of this paper is thus to reconsider the nature of the material intellect’s potency and its formal relation to the agent intellect.

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A Hidden Source? Considerations on Averroes’ Recourse to Avicenna’s Madkhal of the Shifâ’ in the Middle Commentary on Porphyry’s Isagoge, 2018
By: Silvia Di Vincenzo
Title A Hidden Source? Considerations on Averroes’ Recourse to Avicenna’s Madkhal of the Shifâ’ in the Middle Commentary on Porphyry’s Isagoge
Type Article
Language English
Date 2018
Journal Documenti e studi sulla tradizione filosofica medievale
Volume 29
Pages 125–136
Categories Avicenna, Commentary
Author(s) Silvia Di Vincenzo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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A Hidden Source? Considerations on Averroes’ Recourse to Avicenna’s Madkhal of the Shifâ’ in the Middle Commentary on Porphyry’s Isagoge, 2018
By: Silvia Di Vincenzo
Title A Hidden Source? Considerations on Averroes’ Recourse to Avicenna’s Madkhal of the Shifâ’ in the Middle Commentary on Porphyry’s Isagoge
Type Article
Language English
Date 2018
Journal Documenti e studi sulla tradizione filosofica medievale
Volume 29
Pages 125–136
Categories Avicenna, Commentary
Author(s) Silvia Di Vincenzo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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A reference to al-Fârâbî’s Kitâb al-hurûf in Averroes’ critique of Avicenna (Tahâfut al-Tahâfut, 371,5-372,12 Bouyges), 2014
By: Cecilia Martini Bonadeo
Title A reference to al-Fârâbî’s Kitâb al-hurûf in Averroes’ critique of Avicenna (Tahâfut al-Tahâfut, 371,5-372,12 Bouyges)
Type Article
Language English
Date 2014
Journal Studi Magrebini
Volume 12-13
Pages 433-452
Categories al-Fārābī, Avicenna, Commentary, Metaphysics
Author(s) Cecilia Martini Bonadeo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Al-Fārābī’s Book of Letters (Kitāb al-ḥurūf) and the analyses devoted in this text to the terminology of “being” are authoritative references for Averroes from the epitomes of his youth to his mature treatises. Also the Farabian doctrine of the conventionality of the natural language plays a role in Averroes’ thought. This paper discusses the Tahāfut al-Tahāfut, (pp.371,5-372.12 Bouyges), where Averroes has recourse to the Book of Letters in criticizing Avicenna’s distinction between essence and existence. Averroes explicitly mentions the title of the work and recalls a passage from the fifteenth chapter. This passage had already inspired him in the Epitome on Metaphysics, where Averroes did not mention explicitly his source, but followed in al-Fārābī’s footsteps as for the analysis of the uses of “being”. Averroes uses tacitly the same passage also in his Commentary on Metaphysics Delta 7.

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Abraham Bibago on Intellectual Conjunction and Human Happiness, Faith and Metaphysics according to a 15th century Jewish Averroist, 2015
By: Yehuda Halper
Title Abraham Bibago on Intellectual Conjunction and Human Happiness, Faith and Metaphysics according to a 15th century Jewish Averroist
Type Article
Language English
Date 2015
Journal Quaestio
Volume 15
Pages 309–318
Categories Averroism, Jewish Averroism, Commentary, Metaphysics
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The 15th century Jewish Aragonian thinker, Abraham Bibago treats conjunction in his two main works, Derekh Emunah (“The Way of Faith”) and Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics. In the former, which explicitly interprets Biblical and Talmudic stories along philosophical lines, Bibago promotes a neo-Platonic intellectual emanation schema and boldly asserts that human happiness is attained through conjunction with higher intellects. In the Commentary, which primarily treats Aristotle’s Metaphysics and Averroes’ commentaries on it, Bibago gives an account of conjunction that does not necessarily fit with the intellectual conjunction of Derekh Emunah. Indeed, his remarks in the Commentary are much less decisive about human happiness, suggesting that Bibago qua philosopher is more open minded about the summum bonum than he is qua religious thinker.

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Averroes and the Philosophical Account of Prophecy, 2018
By: Richard C. Taylor
Title Averroes and the Philosophical Account of Prophecy
Type Article
Language English
Date 2018
Journal Studia graeco-arabica
Volume 8
Pages 287–304
Categories Metaphysics, Commentary, Natural Philosophy
Author(s) Richard C. Taylor
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Prophecy is conspicuous by its complete absence from all three of the commentaries on De Anima by Averroes. However, prophecy and philosophical metaphysics are discussed by him in his Commentary on the Parva Naturalia, a work written before his methodological work on philosophy and religion, the Faṣl al-maqāl, generally held to have been written ca. 1179-1180. The analyses and remarks of Averroes presented in that Commentary have been characterized by Herbert Davidson as “extremely radical” to the extent that “The term prophet would, on this reading, mean nothing more than the human author of Scripture; and the term revelation would mean a high level of philosophical knowledge”. In the present article I discuss Averroes on method in matters of religion and philosophy as well as prophecy in philosophically argumentative works and in dialectical works, with particular consideration of the reasoning of his Commentary on the Parva Naturalia. I conclude that Averroes found in philosophy and its sciences the most complete and precise truth content and highest levels of knowledge and understanding and from them constructed his worldview, while he found prophecy and religion to be like an Aristotelian practical science in that they concern good and right conduct in the achievement of an end attained in action, not truths to be known for their own sake.

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Averroes' Middle Commentary on Book I of the Nicomachean Ethics, 2014
By: Steven Harvey, Frédérique Woerther
Title Averroes' Middle Commentary on Book I of the Nicomachean Ethics
Type Article
Language English
Date 2014
Journal Oriens
Volume 42
Issue 1-2
Pages 254-287
Categories Aristotle, Nicomachean ethics, Commentary
Author(s) Steven Harvey , Frédérique Woerther
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The conventional view of the previous century that Averroes’ middle commentaries (talāḫīṣ) on Aristotle are all of the same form and style is no longer tenable. A full and accurate account of the similarities and differences among Averroes’ talāḫīṣ on Aristotle must consider all of them. Perhaps the least studied and least known of these middle commentaries is the one on the Nicomachean Ethics, a text which is extant today only in a critically edited medieval Hebrew translation and an as yet unedited medieval Latin translation. The two authors of the present article have each studied chapters of this commentary independently of each other and have reached different conclusions concerning its value. In this article they present a careful examination of the first book of Averroes’ commentary via its Hebrew translation and Latin translation (primarily through the two oldest and most reliable manuscripts of it) in comparison with the medieval Arabic translation of the Nicomachean Ethics that was used by Averroes (and in light of Aristotle’s Greek text). This study shows an Averroean middle commentary that is not very original and not particularly helpful, especially, for example, when compared to the quite different middle commentaries on Aristotle’s books on natural science. Indeed, he often seems to do little more than copy—not even paraphrase—the Arabic translation. On the other hand, Averroes does not hesitate to insert words as he copies in order to make the text clearer and easier to understand. Where lengthier explanations are needed, they too are attempted, at times in response to problematic translations in the Arabic text before him.

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Averroes's Aesthetics. The Pleasure of Philosophy and the Pleasure of Poetry, 2015
By: Francesca Forte
Title Averroes's Aesthetics. The Pleasure of Philosophy and the Pleasure of Poetry
Type Article
Language English
Date 2015
Journal Quaestio
Volume 15
Pages 287–296
Categories Aristotle, Poetics, Commentary, Logic, Politics
Author(s) Francesca Forte
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
The theme of the pleasure of knowledge is central in Averroes’ aesthetical reflection of Aristotle’s Poetics, regardless whether we side with the logical or with the moral interpretation. The first one stresses the continuity between Averroes and previous commentators in his attempt to reconstruct the Poetics as an integral part of the Logic itself, whereby poetic discourse is conceived as a form of reasoning based on syllogisms. According to the latter perspective, however, pleasure is central in that poetry is a tool towards the pursuit of happiness: in this perspective it is necessary to bear in mind some common themes present in other works by Averroes (particularly in the commentaries on the Aristotelian Organon – and especially the commentary on the Rhetoric –, in the commentaries on Plato’s Republic, and, last but not least, in the Decisive Treatise). The pleasure of contemplative knowledge must go hand in hand with the pursuit of communal happiness and therefore with the good and proper order of community and society. Poetry represents a central tool towards this aim in that it expresses moral truths which cannot not be communicated (to everybody) by means of logic and philosophy alone.

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Averroes’ Rewrite of Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ: Establishing the Plain Meaning of the Text in the Middle Commentary, 2019
By: Yehuda Halper
Title Averroes’ Rewrite of Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ: Establishing the Plain Meaning of the Text in the Middle Commentary
Type Article
Language English
Date 2019
Journal Recherches de Théologie et Philosophie Médiévales
Volume 86
Issue 2
Pages 259–281
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, Metaphysics
Author(s) Yehuda Halper
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes’ Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ provides a rewrite of Aristotle’s text that was apparently intended to convey the plain meaning of the text to a general, though at least somewhat educated, audience. Such a commentary was necessary because ᾿Usṭāṯ’s ninth-century Arabic translation was insufficient in many respects for conveying Aristotle’s ideas into Arabic. Accordingly, Averroes’ Middle Commentary sought to rephrase and rewrite the text in such a way as to clarify the text, correct apparent errors in it, simplify the text, and add short explanations to it. This article offers a philological characterization of the Middle Commentary that should be an aid for reading the text and comparing it with other commentaries, especially Averroes’ Long Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics Δ.

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Averroismi al plurale. La ricezione del Tafsîr kitâb al-nafs di Ibn Rushd nel Commento alle Sentenze di Tommaso d’Aquino, 2017
By: Federico Minzoni
Title Averroismi al plurale. La ricezione del Tafsîr kitâb al-nafs di Ibn Rushd nel Commento alle Sentenze di Tommaso d’Aquino
Type Article
Language Italian
Date 2017
Journal Dianoia
Volume 24
Pages 15-32
Categories Aristotle, Commentary, De anima, Averroism, Siger of Brabant, Thomas
Author(s) Federico Minzoni
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
A widespread historiographic commonplace, established by Thomas Aquinas himself in his Tractatus de unitate intellectus (1270), takes Siger of Brabant’s Quaestiones in tertium de anima (ca. 1265) to be a latin formulation of Ibn Rušd’s theory of the unity of the material intellect as exposed in the Tafsīr Kitāb al-Nafs (Long Commentary on the De anima, ca. 1186); according to the same view, Aquinas’ philosophy of mind would be the expression of a strongly antiaverroistic – and therefore more orthodox – kind of aristotelianism. Building on a thorough analysis of key texts in Aquinas’ Commentary on the Sentences (1255), I argue in this paper that those who hold Aquinas’ noetic to be anti-averroistic are greatly mistaken: while Siger’s always superficial rushdian inspiration is better understood against the background of a neoplatonic-tinged mind-body dualism clearly at odds with Ibn Rušd’s own strictly peripatetic ontology, Aquinas’ psychology, hylomorfic and not-dualist at its core, is aristotelian mainly inasmuch as it is rushdian.

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Averroès et l'intellect matériel diaphane - Remarques sur une analogie variable, 2018
By: Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Title Averroès et l'intellect matériel diaphane - Remarques sur une analogie variable
Type Article
Language French
Date 2018
Journal Recherches de Théologie et Philosophie Médiévales
Volume 85
Issue 2
Pages 261–284
Categories Commentary, De anima
Author(s) Jean-Baptiste Brenet
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
This paper studies the analogy set forth by Averroes in his Great Commentary on the De anima between the material intellect and the transparent medium. The overall context of the present inquiry is the 'question of Theophrastus' concerning the nature of the material intellect. The paper argues that the analogy between material intellect and transparent medium arises because, just like the transparent medium, the material intellect’s functioning requires a prior actualization: just as colors shine through the transparent medium only insofar as it is itself actually illuminated, the material intellect can receive intelligible forms only insofar as it is fundamentally actualized by the agent intellect. The aim of this paper is thus to reconsider the nature of the material intellect’s potency and its formal relation to the agent intellect.

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Boèce, Averroès et Abū al-Barakāt al-Baġdādī. Témoins des écrits de Thémistius sur les Topiques d'Aristote, 2007
By: Ahmad Hasnawi
Title Boèce, Averroès et Abū al-Barakāt al-Baġdādī. Témoins des écrits de Thémistius sur les Topiques d'Aristote
Type Article
Language French
Date 2007
Journal Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
Volume 17
Issue 2
Pages 203–265
Categories Transmission, Commentary, Themistius, Logic, Aristotle
Author(s) Ahmad Hasnawi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Aristotle's Topics, and especially, as far as the subject of this study is concerned, their central books (II-VII), played a role of central importance both in the medieval Latin and in the Arabic logical tradition. This did not occur without transformations, which affected the nature and the function of the loci of which these books set forth the theory. One of the most visible signposts of this tradition of re-elaboration of the Topics is represented by Themistius (ob. c. 388), to whom both Boethius and Averroes refer. Yet no work by Themistius on the Topics has come down to us in Greek. With a view to reconstructing the work(s) of this author, we have here collected and translated the passages that are attributed to him explicitly (with the exception of one of them) in Averroes' Middle Commentary on the Topics, comparing them, where necessary, to the testimonies collected by Boethius in his De topicis differentiis. In addition - and this is a new element added to the file - we show that the Themistian classification of loci was taken up by Abū al-Barakāt al-Baġdādī (ob. after 1164), author of a philosophical summa entitled al-Kitāb al-muʿtabar (The meditated book). These three testimonies are all the more precious in that they are independent of one another. The study of the chapter in the logical part of al-Kitāb al-muʿtabar, containing the Themistian classification of loci, of which a corrected text with translation is offered, shows that one finds in it some of the most singular aspects of this classification, as it appears in Boethius. Abū al-Barakāt al-Baġdādī thus reveals himself to be closer than Averroes to the testimony of Boethius. This suggests the idea of a double redaction by Themistius of the classification of loci: one, more concentrated, comes from an introduction to the paraphrase of the central books of the Topics, which may have inspired Averroes; the other, more extensive, which will have been part of an original work, and inspired the classifications of Boethius and of Abū al-Barakāt al-Baġdādī.

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