Imposing Alfarabi on Plato: Averroes’s Novel Placement of the Platonic City, 2022
By: Alexander Orwin
Title Imposing Alfarabi on Plato: Averroes’s Novel Placement of the Platonic City
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 19–39
Categories al-Fārābī, Galen, Aristotle, Plato, Politics, Commentary
Author(s) Alexander Orwin
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” goes far beyond merely commenting on the original. With the benefit of 1,500 years of hindsight, it reckons with important works of philosophy that would have been completely unknown to Plato. Averroes mentions three authors of such works by name: Galen, whom he mostly rebukes, Aristotle, and Alfarabi. It would be hasty to assert that by including such extraneous material, Averroes departs from Plato, but, at the very least, he updates him on account of historical developments. The importance of Averroes's post-Platonic additions is evident from the very structure of the work. The part of it that can plausibly claim to be a commentary on Plato does not begin until 27.24, almost seven pages into Rosenthal's Hebrew text. Averroes begins to address the subject of war, corresponding to Republic 374b, having skipped all of book 1 and the majority of book 2, with only two brief references to them in the opening section (CR 22.27–30, 23.31–33, cf. 47.29–30and 105.25–27). Averroes does not justify his omission until the very end of the work, when he states that the opening part of the Republic does not contain any of the demonstrative arguments of which his commentary is comprised (CR 105.25–27, cf. 21.4). He is more immediately forthright about the reasons for what he includes in its place. In keeping with the demonstrative focus of the work, Averroes replaces Platonic dialectic with a substantial discussion of science. Having divided practical science into two parts, one about general habits and actions and another about their implementation, Averroes explains: “Before we begin a point-by-point explanation of what is in these arguments [of Plato], we ought to mention the things pertinent to this [second] part [of practical science] and explained in the first part, that serve as foundation for what we wish to say here at the beginning” (CR 22.6–8). Averroes's introduction concerns above all the first part of political science, while the Republic proper contains only the second. Averroes attributes to Plato only a small part of the ensuing discussion, concerning justice, the division of labor, and the arrangement of the soul (CR 22.22–24.6, esp. 22.27, 23.31). The other passages are inspired by Aristotle and especially Alfarabi. Averroes appears to substitute scientific arguments from Aristotle and Alfarabi—mainly about science, philosophy, courage, and war—for Plato's dialectical introduction about justice and the founding of the just city.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5347","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5347,"authors_free":[{"id":6197,"entry_id":5347,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1790,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":"Alexander","free_last_name":"Orwin","norm_person":{"id":1790,"first_name":" Alexander","last_name":" Orwin","full_name":" Alexander Orwin","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":null,"dnb_url":"https:\/\/d-nb.info\/1153328348","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":null,"link":"bib?authors[]= Alexander Orwin"}}],"entry_title":"Imposing Alfarabi on Plato: Averroes\u2019s Novel Placement of the Platonic City","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Imposing Alfarabi on Plato: Averroes\u2019s Novel Placement of the Platonic City"},"abstract":"Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d goes far beyond merely commenting on the original. With the benefit of 1,500 years of hindsight, it reckons with important works of philosophy that would have been completely unknown to Plato. Averroes mentions three authors of such works by name: Galen, whom he mostly rebukes, Aristotle, and Alfarabi. It would be hasty to assert that by including such extraneous material, Averroes departs from Plato, but, at the very least, he updates him on account of historical developments.\r\n\r\nThe importance of Averroes's post-Platonic additions is evident from the very structure of the work. The part of it that can plausibly claim to be a commentary on Plato does not begin until 27.24, almost seven pages into Rosenthal's Hebrew text. Averroes begins to address the subject of war, corresponding to Republic 374b, having skipped all of book 1 and the majority of book 2, with only two brief references to them in the opening section (CR 22.27\u201330, 23.31\u201333, cf. 47.29\u201330and 105.25\u201327). Averroes does not justify his omission until the very end of the work, when he states that the opening part of the Republic does not contain any of the demonstrative arguments of which his commentary is comprised (CR 105.25\u201327, cf. 21.4). He is more immediately forthright about the reasons for what he includes in its place. In keeping with the demonstrative focus of the work, Averroes replaces Platonic dialectic with a substantial discussion of science. Having divided practical science into two parts, one about general habits and actions and another about their implementation, Averroes explains: \u201cBefore we begin a point-by-point explanation of what is in these arguments [of Plato], we ought to mention the things pertinent to this [second] part [of practical science] and explained in the first part, that serve as foundation for what we wish to say here at the beginning\u201d (CR 22.6\u20138). Averroes's introduction concerns above all the first part of political science, while the Republic proper contains only the second. Averroes attributes to Plato only a small part of the ensuing discussion, concerning justice, the division of labor, and the arrangement of the soul (CR 22.22\u201324.6, esp. 22.27, 23.31). The other passages are inspired by Aristotle and especially Alfarabi. Averroes appears to substitute scientific arguments from Aristotle and Alfarabi\u2014mainly about science, philosophy, courage, and war\u2014for Plato's dialectical introduction about justice and the founding of the just city.","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.002","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":28,"category_name":"al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b","link":"bib?categories[]=al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b"},{"id":30,"category_name":"Galen","link":"bib?categories[]=Galen"},{"id":21,"category_name":"Aristotle","link":"bib?categories[]=Aristotle"},{"id":20,"category_name":"Plato","link":"bib?categories[]=Plato"},{"id":4,"category_name":"Politics","link":"bib?categories[]=Politics"},{"id":23,"category_name":"Commentary","link":"bib?categories[]=Commentary"}],"authors":[{"id":1790,"full_name":" Alexander Orwin","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5347,"section_of":5346,"pages":"19\u201339","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2022]}

Music, Poetry, and Politics in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Douglas Kries
Title Music, Poetry, and Politics in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 87–110
Categories Poetics, Politics, Plato
Author(s) Douglas Kries
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
As our title announces, the current essay will explore three subjects that, in Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” lead from one into another, almost like a short series of stepping-stones. The first part of the essay will consider the treatment of music in the Commentary, arguing that Averroes effectively reduces music to poetry. The second of the stepping-stones will show that the Commentary credits poetry with educating the young especially and in that way transforms poetry into a political art for disciplining and educating citizens. The third will take up the question of the Andalusian's extended criticism of poetry's common practice of offering pleasurable prizes and rewards for virtue and show how the Commentator applies this criticism of poetry to the very author on whom he is commenting. In pursuing all three of these questions, we will focus squarely on Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” attempting to understand that text on its own terms but against its obvious background, the Republic of Plato. Nevertheless, in pursuing the teaching of The Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” we cannot neglect the important research that has been done in recent decades on classical Islamic philosophy's understanding of Aristotle's Organon generally and of the Poetics in particular. We will therefore turn to the reports of other scholars on these aspects of Averroes, at least to the extent that such reports will be helpful in enabling us to understand better the Commentary on Plato's “Republic.” In the Republic, Plato initiates his analysis of the education of the guardians with a discussion of music in the latter portions of book 2; that discussion extends through much of book 3. Averroes's corresponding treatment of the education of the guardians through music is in the “First Treatise” of the Commentary, mostly in a relatively lengthy and isolable section that extends from 29.9 through 36.5. During his treatment of music, Plato divides his subject into three parts: “melody is composed of three things—speech, harmonic mode, and rhythm.” Averroes seems to accept this division, although he inverts the order of the three elements: “A melody occurring in a narrative is composed of three things: rhythm, harmonic mode, and the speech to which the melody is set” (34.30–31).

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5350","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5350,"authors_free":[{"id":6200,"entry_id":5350,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Douglas Kries","free_first_name":"Douglas","free_last_name":"Kries","norm_person":null}],"entry_title":"Music, Poetry, and Politics in Averroes\u2019s Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Music, Poetry, and Politics in Averroes\u2019s Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d"},"abstract":"As our title announces, the current essay will explore three subjects that, in Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic,\u201d lead from one into another, almost like a short series of stepping-stones. The first part of the essay will consider the treatment of music in the Commentary, arguing that Averroes effectively reduces music to poetry. The second of the stepping-stones will show that the Commentary credits poetry with educating the young especially and in that way transforms poetry into a political art for disciplining and educating citizens. The third will take up the question of the Andalusian's extended criticism of poetry's common practice of offering pleasurable prizes and rewards for virtue and show how the Commentator applies this criticism of poetry to the very author on whom he is commenting. In pursuing all three of these questions, we will focus squarely on Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic,\u201d attempting to understand that text on its own terms but against its obvious background, the Republic of Plato. Nevertheless, in pursuing the teaching of The Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic,\u201d we cannot neglect the important research that has been done in recent decades on classical Islamic philosophy's understanding of Aristotle's Organon generally and of the Poetics in particular. We will therefore turn to the reports of other scholars on these aspects of Averroes, at least to the extent that such reports will be helpful in enabling us to understand better the Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic.\u201d\r\n\r\nIn the Republic, Plato initiates his analysis of the education of the guardians with a discussion of music in the latter portions of book 2; that discussion extends through much of book 3. Averroes's corresponding treatment of the education of the guardians through music is in the \u201cFirst Treatise\u201d of the Commentary, mostly in a relatively lengthy and isolable section that extends from 29.9 through 36.5. During his treatment of music, Plato divides his subject into three parts: \u201cmelody is composed of three things\u2014speech, harmonic mode, and rhythm.\u201d Averroes seems to accept this division, although he inverts the order of the three elements: \u201cA melody occurring in a narrative is composed of three things: rhythm, harmonic mode, and the speech to which the melody is set\u201d (34.30\u201331).","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.005","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":44,"category_name":"Poetics","link":"bib?categories[]=Poetics"},{"id":4,"category_name":"Politics","link":"bib?categories[]=Politics"},{"id":20,"category_name":"Plato","link":"bib?categories[]=Plato"}],"authors":[],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5350,"section_of":5346,"pages":"87\u2013110","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2022]}

Legitimate and Illegitimate Violence in Arabic Political Philosophy: al-Fârâbî, Ibn Rushd and Ibn Khaldûn, 2018
By: Miklós Maróth
Title Legitimate and Illegitimate Violence in Arabic Political Philosophy: al-Fârâbî, Ibn Rushd and Ibn Khaldûn
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2018
Published in Violence in Islamic Thought from the Mongols to European Imperialism
Pages 149–164
Categories al-Fārābī, Plato, Politics
Author(s) Miklós Maróth
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes’ Commentary on Plato’s Republic, 2015
By: Muhsin Mahdi
Title Averroes’ Commentary on Plato’s Republic
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2015
Published in Political Philosophy and Philosophy of History: Proceedings of the Colloquium dedicated to Muhsin Mahdi
Pages 27–42
Categories Commentary, Plato, Politics
Author(s) Muhsin Mahdi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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The ruler’s essential qualities in Averroes’ Commentary on Plato’s „Republic“, 2013
By: Rosalie Helena de Souza Pereira
Title The ruler’s essential qualities in Averroes’ Commentary on Plato’s „Republic“
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2013
Published in Dialogues on Plato's Politeia (Republic): selected papers from the Ninth Symposium Platonicum
Pages 371–376
Categories Politics, Plato, Commentary
Author(s) Rosalie Helena de Souza Pereira
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Averroes’ Commentary on Plato’s Republic, 2015
By: Muhsin Mahdi
Title Averroes’ Commentary on Plato’s Republic
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2015
Published in Political Philosophy and Philosophy of History: Proceedings of the Colloquium dedicated to Muhsin Mahdi
Pages 27–42
Categories Commentary, Plato, Politics
Author(s) Muhsin Mahdi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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Imposing Alfarabi on Plato: Averroes’s Novel Placement of the Platonic City, 2022
By: Alexander Orwin
Title Imposing Alfarabi on Plato: Averroes’s Novel Placement of the Platonic City
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 19–39
Categories al-Fārābī, Galen, Aristotle, Plato, Politics, Commentary
Author(s) Alexander Orwin
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” goes far beyond merely commenting on the original. With the benefit of 1,500 years of hindsight, it reckons with important works of philosophy that would have been completely unknown to Plato. Averroes mentions three authors of such works by name: Galen, whom he mostly rebukes, Aristotle, and Alfarabi. It would be hasty to assert that by including such extraneous material, Averroes departs from Plato, but, at the very least, he updates him on account of historical developments. The importance of Averroes's post-Platonic additions is evident from the very structure of the work. The part of it that can plausibly claim to be a commentary on Plato does not begin until 27.24, almost seven pages into Rosenthal's Hebrew text. Averroes begins to address the subject of war, corresponding to Republic 374b, having skipped all of book 1 and the majority of book 2, with only two brief references to them in the opening section (CR 22.27–30, 23.31–33, cf. 47.29–30and 105.25–27). Averroes does not justify his omission until the very end of the work, when he states that the opening part of the Republic does not contain any of the demonstrative arguments of which his commentary is comprised (CR 105.25–27, cf. 21.4). He is more immediately forthright about the reasons for what he includes in its place. In keeping with the demonstrative focus of the work, Averroes replaces Platonic dialectic with a substantial discussion of science. Having divided practical science into two parts, one about general habits and actions and another about their implementation, Averroes explains: “Before we begin a point-by-point explanation of what is in these arguments [of Plato], we ought to mention the things pertinent to this [second] part [of practical science] and explained in the first part, that serve as foundation for what we wish to say here at the beginning” (CR 22.6–8). Averroes's introduction concerns above all the first part of political science, while the Republic proper contains only the second. Averroes attributes to Plato only a small part of the ensuing discussion, concerning justice, the division of labor, and the arrangement of the soul (CR 22.22–24.6, esp. 22.27, 23.31). The other passages are inspired by Aristotle and especially Alfarabi. Averroes appears to substitute scientific arguments from Aristotle and Alfarabi—mainly about science, philosophy, courage, and war—for Plato's dialectical introduction about justice and the founding of the just city.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5347","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5347,"authors_free":[{"id":6197,"entry_id":5347,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1790,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":"Alexander","free_last_name":"Orwin","norm_person":{"id":1790,"first_name":" Alexander","last_name":" Orwin","full_name":" Alexander Orwin","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":null,"dnb_url":"https:\/\/d-nb.info\/1153328348","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":null,"link":"bib?authors[]= Alexander Orwin"}}],"entry_title":"Imposing Alfarabi on Plato: Averroes\u2019s Novel Placement of the Platonic City","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Imposing Alfarabi on Plato: Averroes\u2019s Novel Placement of the Platonic City"},"abstract":"Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d goes far beyond merely commenting on the original. With the benefit of 1,500 years of hindsight, it reckons with important works of philosophy that would have been completely unknown to Plato. Averroes mentions three authors of such works by name: Galen, whom he mostly rebukes, Aristotle, and Alfarabi. It would be hasty to assert that by including such extraneous material, Averroes departs from Plato, but, at the very least, he updates him on account of historical developments.\r\n\r\nThe importance of Averroes's post-Platonic additions is evident from the very structure of the work. The part of it that can plausibly claim to be a commentary on Plato does not begin until 27.24, almost seven pages into Rosenthal's Hebrew text. Averroes begins to address the subject of war, corresponding to Republic 374b, having skipped all of book 1 and the majority of book 2, with only two brief references to them in the opening section (CR 22.27\u201330, 23.31\u201333, cf. 47.29\u201330and 105.25\u201327). Averroes does not justify his omission until the very end of the work, when he states that the opening part of the Republic does not contain any of the demonstrative arguments of which his commentary is comprised (CR 105.25\u201327, cf. 21.4). He is more immediately forthright about the reasons for what he includes in its place. In keeping with the demonstrative focus of the work, Averroes replaces Platonic dialectic with a substantial discussion of science. Having divided practical science into two parts, one about general habits and actions and another about their implementation, Averroes explains: \u201cBefore we begin a point-by-point explanation of what is in these arguments [of Plato], we ought to mention the things pertinent to this [second] part [of practical science] and explained in the first part, that serve as foundation for what we wish to say here at the beginning\u201d (CR 22.6\u20138). Averroes's introduction concerns above all the first part of political science, while the Republic proper contains only the second. Averroes attributes to Plato only a small part of the ensuing discussion, concerning justice, the division of labor, and the arrangement of the soul (CR 22.22\u201324.6, esp. 22.27, 23.31). The other passages are inspired by Aristotle and especially Alfarabi. Averroes appears to substitute scientific arguments from Aristotle and Alfarabi\u2014mainly about science, philosophy, courage, and war\u2014for Plato's dialectical introduction about justice and the founding of the just city.","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.002","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":28,"category_name":"al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b","link":"bib?categories[]=al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b"},{"id":30,"category_name":"Galen","link":"bib?categories[]=Galen"},{"id":21,"category_name":"Aristotle","link":"bib?categories[]=Aristotle"},{"id":20,"category_name":"Plato","link":"bib?categories[]=Plato"},{"id":4,"category_name":"Politics","link":"bib?categories[]=Politics"},{"id":23,"category_name":"Commentary","link":"bib?categories[]=Commentary"}],"authors":[{"id":1790,"full_name":" Alexander Orwin","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5347,"section_of":5346,"pages":"19\u201339","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":["Imposing Alfarabi on Plato: Averroes\u2019s Novel Placement of the Platonic City"]}

Legitimate and Illegitimate Violence in Arabic Political Philosophy: al-Fârâbî, Ibn Rushd and Ibn Khaldûn, 2018
By: Miklós Maróth
Title Legitimate and Illegitimate Violence in Arabic Political Philosophy: al-Fârâbî, Ibn Rushd and Ibn Khaldûn
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2018
Published in Violence in Islamic Thought from the Mongols to European Imperialism
Pages 149–164
Categories al-Fārābī, Plato, Politics
Author(s) Miklós Maróth
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5097","_score":null,"_ignored":["booksection.book.abstract.keyword"],"_source":{"id":5097,"authors_free":[{"id":5871,"entry_id":5097,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1080,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Mikl\u00f3s Mar\u00f3th","free_first_name":"Mikl\u00f3s","free_last_name":"Mar\u00f3th","norm_person":{"id":1080,"first_name":"Mikl\u00f3s","last_name":"Mar\u00f3th","full_name":"Mikl\u00f3s Mar\u00f3th","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/136094120","viaf_url":"https:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/111274403","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=Mikl\u00f3s Mar\u00f3th"}}],"entry_title":"Legitimate and Illegitimate Violence in Arabic Political Philosophy: al-F\u00e2r\u00e2b\u00ee, Ibn Rushd and Ibn Khald\u00fbn","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Legitimate and Illegitimate Violence in Arabic Political Philosophy: al-F\u00e2r\u00e2b\u00ee, Ibn Rushd and Ibn Khald\u00fbn"},"abstract":"","btype":2,"date":"2018","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":28,"category_name":"al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b","link":"bib?categories[]=al-F\u0101r\u0101b\u012b"},{"id":20,"category_name":"Plato","link":"bib?categories[]=Plato"},{"id":4,"category_name":"Politics","link":"bib?categories[]=Politics"}],"authors":[{"id":1080,"full_name":"Mikl\u00f3s Mar\u00f3th","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5097,"section_of":5096,"pages":"149\u2013164","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5096,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Violence in Islamic Thought from the Mongols to European Imperialism","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2018","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"Examines the development of Muslim theological, legal, literary and cultural discussions about violence and its legitimation\r\n\r\nThe violent conquest of the eastern part of the lands under Muslim rule by the Mongols marked a new period in the history of Islamic civilisation and in attitudes towards violence. This volume examines the various intellectual and cultural reactions of Muslim thinkers to these events, both within and without the territories subjected to Mongol control. Each chapter examines how violent acts were assessed by Muslim intellectuals, analysing both changes and continuity within Islamic thought over time.\r\n\r\nEach chapter is structured around a case study in which violent acts are justified or condemned, revealing the variety of attitudes to violence in the medieval period. They are framed by a detailed introduction, focusing on theoretical perspectives on violence and religion and their application, or otherwise, to medieval Islam.","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"","book":{"id":5096,"pubplace":"Edinburgh","publisher":"Edinburgh University Press","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null}}},"article":null},"sort":["Legitimate and Illegitimate Violence in Arabic Political Philosophy: al-F\u00e2r\u00e2b\u00ee, Ibn Rushd and Ibn Khald\u00fbn"]}

Music, Poetry, and Politics in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Douglas Kries
Title Music, Poetry, and Politics in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 87–110
Categories Poetics, Politics, Plato
Author(s) Douglas Kries
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
As our title announces, the current essay will explore three subjects that, in Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” lead from one into another, almost like a short series of stepping-stones. The first part of the essay will consider the treatment of music in the Commentary, arguing that Averroes effectively reduces music to poetry. The second of the stepping-stones will show that the Commentary credits poetry with educating the young especially and in that way transforms poetry into a political art for disciplining and educating citizens. The third will take up the question of the Andalusian's extended criticism of poetry's common practice of offering pleasurable prizes and rewards for virtue and show how the Commentator applies this criticism of poetry to the very author on whom he is commenting. In pursuing all three of these questions, we will focus squarely on Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” attempting to understand that text on its own terms but against its obvious background, the Republic of Plato. Nevertheless, in pursuing the teaching of The Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” we cannot neglect the important research that has been done in recent decades on classical Islamic philosophy's understanding of Aristotle's Organon generally and of the Poetics in particular. We will therefore turn to the reports of other scholars on these aspects of Averroes, at least to the extent that such reports will be helpful in enabling us to understand better the Commentary on Plato's “Republic.” In the Republic, Plato initiates his analysis of the education of the guardians with a discussion of music in the latter portions of book 2; that discussion extends through much of book 3. Averroes's corresponding treatment of the education of the guardians through music is in the “First Treatise” of the Commentary, mostly in a relatively lengthy and isolable section that extends from 29.9 through 36.5. During his treatment of music, Plato divides his subject into three parts: “melody is composed of three things—speech, harmonic mode, and rhythm.” Averroes seems to accept this division, although he inverts the order of the three elements: “A melody occurring in a narrative is composed of three things: rhythm, harmonic mode, and the speech to which the melody is set” (34.30–31).

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5350","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5350,"authors_free":[{"id":6200,"entry_id":5350,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Douglas Kries","free_first_name":"Douglas","free_last_name":"Kries","norm_person":null}],"entry_title":"Music, Poetry, and Politics in Averroes\u2019s Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Music, Poetry, and Politics in Averroes\u2019s Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d"},"abstract":"As our title announces, the current essay will explore three subjects that, in Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic,\u201d lead from one into another, almost like a short series of stepping-stones. The first part of the essay will consider the treatment of music in the Commentary, arguing that Averroes effectively reduces music to poetry. The second of the stepping-stones will show that the Commentary credits poetry with educating the young especially and in that way transforms poetry into a political art for disciplining and educating citizens. The third will take up the question of the Andalusian's extended criticism of poetry's common practice of offering pleasurable prizes and rewards for virtue and show how the Commentator applies this criticism of poetry to the very author on whom he is commenting. In pursuing all three of these questions, we will focus squarely on Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic,\u201d attempting to understand that text on its own terms but against its obvious background, the Republic of Plato. Nevertheless, in pursuing the teaching of The Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic,\u201d we cannot neglect the important research that has been done in recent decades on classical Islamic philosophy's understanding of Aristotle's Organon generally and of the Poetics in particular. We will therefore turn to the reports of other scholars on these aspects of Averroes, at least to the extent that such reports will be helpful in enabling us to understand better the Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic.\u201d\r\n\r\nIn the Republic, Plato initiates his analysis of the education of the guardians with a discussion of music in the latter portions of book 2; that discussion extends through much of book 3. Averroes's corresponding treatment of the education of the guardians through music is in the \u201cFirst Treatise\u201d of the Commentary, mostly in a relatively lengthy and isolable section that extends from 29.9 through 36.5. During his treatment of music, Plato divides his subject into three parts: \u201cmelody is composed of three things\u2014speech, harmonic mode, and rhythm.\u201d Averroes seems to accept this division, although he inverts the order of the three elements: \u201cA melody occurring in a narrative is composed of three things: rhythm, harmonic mode, and the speech to which the melody is set\u201d (34.30\u201331).","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.005","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":44,"category_name":"Poetics","link":"bib?categories[]=Poetics"},{"id":4,"category_name":"Politics","link":"bib?categories[]=Politics"},{"id":20,"category_name":"Plato","link":"bib?categories[]=Plato"}],"authors":[],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5350,"section_of":5346,"pages":"87\u2013110","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":["Music, Poetry, and Politics in Averroes\u2019s Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d"]}

The ruler’s essential qualities in Averroes’ Commentary on Plato’s „Republic“, 2013
By: Rosalie Helena de Souza Pereira
Title The ruler’s essential qualities in Averroes’ Commentary on Plato’s „Republic“
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2013
Published in Dialogues on Plato's Politeia (Republic): selected papers from the Ninth Symposium Platonicum
Pages 371–376
Categories Politics, Plato, Commentary
Author(s) Rosalie Helena de Souza Pereira
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

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