An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Karen Taliaferro
Title An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 182–200
Categories Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Law
Author(s) Karen Taliaferro
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
“Of what use,” Ralph Lerner asks in his introduction to Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” “is this pagan closet philosophy to men who already hold what they believe to be the inestimable gift of a divinely revealed Law, a sharīʿa?” In other words, once one has God's direct revelation concerning how to live, does one need philosophy? The answer to this question matters both for the standing of falsafa (Hellenistic philosophy) in Islamic intellectual history as well as for ongoing disputes in Islamic societies concerning the respective roles of sharīʿa and human wisdom. Does divinely revealed Law, sharīʿa, yield the same knowledge as philosophy, or ḥikma (literally “wisdom”), to use Averroes's terms in the Decisive Treatise? Or is there something necessary in each that the other cannot supply? This question conceals something of a dilemma. If the first formulation is correct, one or the other of sharīʿa or ḥikma would seem to be redundant—a charge Averroes himself addresses in the Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” as I discuss below. If, on the other hand, philosophy is needed in addition to sharīʿa, this can call into question the sufficiency of revelation. This returns us to Lerner's question above, for if the sharīʿa represents the fullness of divine revelation, to claim that it needs the merely human ḥikma may be blasphemous. This essay addresses the relationship between sharīʿa and human wisdom through a reading of Averroes's Decisive Treatise and his Commentary on Plato's “Republic.” I attempt to show that Averroes's firm reliance on teleology in the Commentary complements what would otherwise appear to be the primacy of sharīʿa in the Decisive Treatise. Together, I argue, these two texts paint a clearer picture of the interdependence of ḥikma and sharīʿa than either would alone suggest. Traditional interpretations of the two works suggest dramatically different messages of Averroes concerning the respective standings of sharīʿa and ḥikma. Ralph Lerner and E. I. J. Rosenthal, each a translator of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” (hereafter Commentary), disagreed rather sharply on the status of human wisdom vis-à-vis sharīʿa in Averroes's thought. To Rosenthal, in both the Decisive Treatise and the Commentary, Averroes “establishes in unequivocal terms the supreme authority of the Sharīʿa.”

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5354","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5354,"authors_free":[{"id":6205,"entry_id":5354,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1741,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Karen Taliaferro","free_first_name":"Karen","free_last_name":"Taliaferro","norm_person":{"id":1741,"first_name":"Karen","last_name":"Taliaferro","full_name":"Karen Taliaferro","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":null,"dnb_url":"https:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/1021039934","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":null,"link":"bib?authors[]=Karen Taliaferro"}}],"entry_title":"An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d"},"abstract":"\u201cOf what use,\u201d Ralph Lerner asks in his introduction to Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic,\u201d \u201cis this pagan closet philosophy to men who already hold what they believe to be the inestimable gift of a divinely revealed Law, a shar\u012b\u02bfa?\u201d In other words, once one has God's direct revelation concerning how to live, does one need philosophy? The answer to this question matters both for the standing of falsafa (Hellenistic philosophy) in Islamic intellectual history as well as for ongoing disputes in Islamic societies concerning the respective roles of shar\u012b\u02bfa and human wisdom. Does divinely revealed Law, shar\u012b\u02bfa, yield the same knowledge as philosophy, or \u1e25ikma (literally \u201cwisdom\u201d), to use Averroes's terms in the Decisive Treatise? Or is there something necessary in each that the other cannot supply? This question conceals something of a dilemma. If the first formulation is correct, one or the other of shar\u012b\u02bfa or \u1e25ikma would seem to be redundant\u2014a charge Averroes himself addresses in the Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic,\u201d as I discuss below. If, on the other hand, philosophy is needed in addition to shar\u012b\u02bfa, this can call into question the sufficiency of revelation. This returns us to Lerner's question above, for if the shar\u012b\u02bfa represents the fullness of divine revelation, to claim that it needs the merely human \u1e25ikma may be blasphemous. This essay addresses the relationship between shar\u012b\u02bfa and human wisdom through a reading of Averroes's Decisive Treatise and his Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic.\u201d I attempt to show that Averroes's firm reliance on teleology in the Commentary complements what would otherwise appear to be the primacy of shar\u012b\u02bfa in the Decisive Treatise. Together, I argue, these two texts paint a clearer picture of the interdependence of \u1e25ikma and shar\u012b\u02bfa than either would alone suggest.\r\n\r\nTraditional interpretations of the two works suggest dramatically different messages of Averroes concerning the respective standings of shar\u012b\u02bfa and \u1e25ikma. Ralph Lerner and E. I. J. Rosenthal, each a translator of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d (hereafter Commentary), disagreed rather sharply on the status of human wisdom vis-\u00e0-vis shar\u012b\u02bfa in Averroes's thought. To Rosenthal, in both the Decisive Treatise and the Commentary, Averroes \u201cestablishes in unequivocal terms the supreme authority of the Shar\u012b\u02bfa.\u201d","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.009","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":47,"category_name":"Relation between Philosophy and Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Relation between Philosophy and Theology"},{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"}],"authors":[{"id":1741,"full_name":"Karen Taliaferro","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5354,"section_of":5346,"pages":"182\u2013200","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2022]}

The Sharīʿa of the Republic: Islamic Law and Philosophy in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Rasoul Namazi
Title The Sharīʿa of the Republic: Islamic Law and Philosophy in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 160–181
Categories Law, Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Rasoul Namazi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes is one of the few Muslim philosophers whose work has had a considerable impact on European thought; the phenomenon of Averroism has been a part of the common European intellectual heritage for several centuries. One of the most enduring and widely held views, or rather myths, about Averroes for centuries has been that he was a fierce enemy of religion. This view was partly rejected by Ernest Renan's classic nineteenth-century study, in which he critiqued what he called “la legende d’Averroes.” Although a spirited follower of the Enlightenment's cult of science and battle against superstition, and despite his admiration for Averroes as a figure who tried to keep the spirit of reason alive during religious ages, Renan remained unconvinced by the charges leveled against the Arab philosopher. He tried to show how much this view of Averroes was a construction of the European mind in its own battles over heterodoxy and free thought. Renan did not, however, settle for a narrative about the intellectual history of European Averroism, but went beyond this, depicting Averroes's rationalism and Islamic beliefs as two separate, independent spheres that tend not to conflict with each other. That is to say, Averroes could have been a good Muslim as well as a good philosopher. The historicist presuppositions of Renan's thought, however—presuppositions according to which every system of thought is a product of its own time—made his perspective on Averroes incoherent and open to future revisions. Leon Gauthier, although critical of Renan, also tried to circumvent the question of the relationship between Islam and philosophy in Averroes's work. He did this by depicting Islam as a religion without substantial doctrinal content, thereby making possible its compatibility with Greek philosophy. Gauthier therefore claimed that Averroes's thought could be seen as “un rationalisme sans reserve [an unqualified rationalism]” without necessarily rendering Averroes an unbeliever. Scholars like A. F. Mehren, Max Horten, and Asìn Palacio avoided such unsatisfactory solutions by wholeheartedly embracing the view that, in the end, Islamic philosophy is more Islamic than philosophic. They argued that the Islamic philosophy of the falāsifa is an outgrowth of Islamic beliefs expressed in the language of Greek philosophy, and fully in the service of Muslim revelation; therefore, according to these scholars, there is no real conflict between Averroes's philosophy and the tenets of Islam.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5353","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5353,"authors_free":[{"id":6204,"entry_id":5353,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Rasoul Namazi","free_first_name":"Rasoul ","free_last_name":"Namazi","norm_person":null}],"entry_title":"The Shar\u012b\u02bfa of the Republic: Islamic Law and Philosophy in Averroes\u2019s Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"The Shar\u012b\u02bfa of the Republic: Islamic Law and Philosophy in Averroes\u2019s Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d"},"abstract":"Averroes is one of the few Muslim philosophers whose work has had a considerable impact on European thought; the phenomenon of Averroism has been a part of the common European intellectual heritage for several centuries. One of the most enduring and widely held views, or rather myths, about Averroes for centuries has been that he was a fierce enemy of religion. This view was partly rejected by Ernest Renan's classic nineteenth-century study, in which he critiqued what he called \u201cla legende d\u2019Averroes.\u201d Although a spirited follower of the Enlightenment's cult of science and battle against superstition, and despite his admiration for Averroes as a figure who tried to keep the spirit of reason alive during religious ages, Renan remained unconvinced by the charges leveled against the Arab philosopher. He tried to show how much this view of Averroes was a construction of the European mind in its own battles over heterodoxy and free thought. Renan did not, however, settle for a narrative about the intellectual history of European Averroism, but went beyond this, depicting Averroes's rationalism and Islamic beliefs as two separate, independent spheres that tend not to conflict with each other. That is to say, Averroes could have been a good Muslim as well as a good philosopher. The historicist presuppositions of Renan's thought, however\u2014presuppositions according to which every system of thought is a product of its own time\u2014made his perspective on Averroes incoherent and open to future revisions. Leon Gauthier, although critical of Renan, also tried to circumvent the question of the relationship between Islam and philosophy in Averroes's work. He did this by depicting Islam as a religion without substantial doctrinal content, thereby making possible its compatibility with Greek philosophy. Gauthier therefore claimed that Averroes's thought could be seen as \u201cun rationalisme sans reserve [an unqualified rationalism]\u201d without necessarily rendering Averroes an unbeliever. Scholars like A. F. Mehren, Max Horten, and As\u00ecn Palacio avoided such unsatisfactory solutions by wholeheartedly embracing the view that, in the end, Islamic philosophy is more Islamic than philosophic. They argued that the Islamic philosophy of the fal\u0101sifa is an outgrowth of Islamic beliefs expressed in the language of Greek philosophy, and fully in the service of Muslim revelation; therefore, according to these scholars, there is no real conflict between Averroes's philosophy and the tenets of Islam.","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.008","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"},{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":47,"category_name":"Relation between Philosophy and Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Relation between Philosophy and Theology"}],"authors":[],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5353,"section_of":5346,"pages":"160\u2013181","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2022]}

Averroes (1179): Massgebliche Abhandlung, 2018
By: Mario C. Wintersteiger
Title Averroes (1179): Massgebliche Abhandlung
Type Book Section
Language German
Date 2018
Published in Religionsphilosophie und Religionskritik. Ein Handbuch
Pages 95–102
Categories Politics, Theology, Law
Author(s) Mario C. Wintersteiger
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5025","_score":null,"_ignored":["booksection.book.abstract.keyword"],"_source":{"id":5025,"authors_free":[{"id":5763,"entry_id":5025,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1687,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Mario C. Wintersteiger","free_first_name":"Mario C.","free_last_name":"Wintersteiger","norm_person":{"id":1687,"first_name":"Mario C. ","last_name":"Wintersteiger ","full_name":"Mario C. Wintersteiger ","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":null,"dnb_url":"https:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/1059300621","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":null,"link":"bib?authors[]=Mario C. Wintersteiger "}}],"entry_title":"Averroes (1179): Massgebliche Abhandlung","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Averroes (1179): Massgebliche Abhandlung"},"abstract":"","btype":2,"date":"2018","language":"German","online_url":"","doi_url":"","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":4,"category_name":"Politics","link":"bib?categories[]=Politics"},{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"}],"authors":[{"id":1687,"full_name":"Mario C. Wintersteiger ","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5025,"section_of":5024,"pages":"95\u2013102","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5024,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"de","title":"Religionsphilosophie und Religionskritik. Ein Handbuch","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2018","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"Die Wiederkehr der Religion ist in aller Munde. Darin artikuliert sich auch ein Unbehagen an den Entwicklungen einer Moderne, in der die wissenschaftlich-technische Vernunft an ihre Grenzen zu sto\u00dfen scheint. Vor diesem Hintergrund ist es das Ziel des Handbuchs, die gegenw\u00e4rtig viel diskutierten Chancen, aber auch die Gefahren, die mit einer R\u00fcckkehr der Religion verbunden sind, aus der Perspektive der Religionsphilosophie zu reflektieren. Vorgestellt werden 80 Werke aus fast 2500 Jahren westlicher Geistesgeschichte von Platon bis Charles Taylor, die von ausgewiesenen Experten in ihren historischen Kontext gestellt und in ihrer Wirkungsgeschichte analysiert werden. Ein Handbuch f\u00fcr alle, die an Religionsgeschichte, Religionswissenschaft, Theologie und Philosophie interessiert sind.","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"","book":{"id":5024,"pubplace":"Berlin","publisher":"Suhrkamp","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null}}},"article":null},"sort":[2018]}

Averroes (d. 1198), The Decisive Treatise, 2016
By: Catarina Belo
Title Averroes (d. 1198), The Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2016
Published in The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Philosophy
Pages 278–295
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Theology, Politics, Law
Author(s) Catarina Belo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In his Decisive Treatise, Andalusian philosopher Averroes (1126–1198) analyzes the relation between philosophy and religion from an Islamic legal perspective. He emphasizes the obligation upon some Muslims to study philosophy and how philosophy can be considered one of the Islamic sciences. He mentions the significance of a nonliteral reading of the Qur’ān and defends the compatibility between Aristotelian philosophy and Islamic religion.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5213","_score":null,"_ignored":["booksection.book.abstract.keyword"],"_source":{"id":5213,"authors_free":[{"id":6014,"entry_id":5213,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1254,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Catarina Belo","free_first_name":"Catarina","free_last_name":"Belo","norm_person":{"id":1254,"first_name":"Catarina","last_name":"Belo","full_name":"Catarina Belo","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/132895374","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=Catarina Belo"}}],"entry_title":"Averroes (d. 1198), The Decisive Treatise","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Averroes (d. 1198), The Decisive Treatise"},"abstract":"In his Decisive Treatise, Andalusian philosopher Averroes (1126\u20131198) analyzes the relation between philosophy and religion from an Islamic legal perspective. He emphasizes the obligation upon some Muslims to study philosophy and how philosophy can be considered one of the Islamic sciences. He mentions the significance of a nonliteral reading of the Qur\u2019\u0101n and defends the compatibility between Aristotelian philosophy and Islamic religion.","btype":2,"date":"2016","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"10.1093\/oxfordhb\/9780199917389.013.37","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":47,"category_name":"Relation between Philosophy and Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Relation between Philosophy and Theology"},{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":4,"category_name":"Politics","link":"bib?categories[]=Politics"},{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"}],"authors":[{"id":1254,"full_name":"Catarina Belo","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5213,"section_of":5212,"pages":"278\u2013295","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5212,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Philosophy","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2016","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"The study of Islamic philosophy has recently entered a new and exciting phase. Both the received canon of Islamic philosophers and the grand narrative of the course of Islamic philosophy are in the process of being radically questioned and revised. The bulk of twentieth-century Western scholarship on Arabic or Islamic philosophy focused on the period from the ninth century to the twelfth. It is a measure of the transformation that is currently underway in the field that the present Handbook gives roughly equal weight to every century from the ninth to the twentieth. The Handbook differs from previous overviews in another significant way: It is work-centered rather than person- or theme-centered. This format is intended to give readers a better sense of what a work in Islamic philosophy looks like, and of the issues, concepts, and arguments that are at play in works belonging to various periods and subfields within Islamic philosophy.","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"10.1093\/oxfordhb\/9780199917389.001.0001","book":{"id":5212,"pubplace":"New York, NY","publisher":"Oxford University Press","series":"Oxford handbooks ","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null}}},"article":null},"sort":[2016]}

The Intention of the Law and the Lawgiver in Averroes's Decisive Treatise, 2011
By: Rima Pavalko
Title The Intention of the Law and the Lawgiver in Averroes's Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2011
Published in La lumière de l'intellect. La pensée scientifique et philosophique d'Averroès dans son temps. Actes du IVe colloque international de la SIHSPAI (Société internationale d'histoire des sciences et de la philosophie arabes et islamiques). Cordoue, 9–12 décembre 1998
Pages 487–492
Categories Law, Theology
Author(s) Rima Pavalko
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"1526","_score":null,"_source":{"id":1526,"authors_free":[{"id":1752,"entry_id":1526,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1377,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Rima Pavalko","free_first_name":"Rima","free_last_name":"Pavalko","norm_person":{"id":1377,"first_name":"Rima","last_name":"Pavalko","full_name":"Rima Pavalko","short_ident":"RimPav","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=Rima Pavalko"}}],"entry_title":"The Intention of the Law and the Lawgiver in Averroes's Decisive Treatise","title_transcript":null,"title_translation":null,"main_title":{"title":"The Intention of the Law and the Lawgiver in Averroes's Decisive Treatise"},"abstract":null,"btype":2,"date":"2011","language":"English","online_url":null,"doi_url":null,"ti_url":null,"categories":[{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"},{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"}],"authors":[{"id":1377,"full_name":"Rima Pavalko","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":1526,"section_of":211,"pages":"487\u2013492","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":211,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"reference","type":4,"language":null,"title":"La lumi\u00e8re de l'intellect. La pens\u00e9e scientifique et philosophique d'Averro\u00e8s dans son temps. Actes du IVe colloque international de la SIHSPAI (Soci\u00e9t\u00e9 internationale d'histoire des sciences et de la philosophie arabes et islamiques). Cordoue, 9\u201312 d\u00e9cembre 1998","title_transcript":null,"title_translation":null,"short_title":null,"has_no_author":0,"volume":null,"date":"2011","edition_no":null,"free_date":"2011","abstract":null,"republication_of":null,"online_url":null,"online_resources":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":null,"doi_url":null,"book":{"id":211,"pubplace":"Leuven","publisher":"Peeters","series":"Ancient and Classical Sciences and Philosophy","volume":null,"edition_no":null,"valid_from":null,"valid_until":null}}},"article":null},"sort":[2011]}

The Decisive Treatise, 2011
By: Averroes,
Title The Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2011
Published in Medieval Political Philosophy: A Sourcebook
Pages 123–140
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Averroes ,
Publisher(s)
Translator(s) Charles E. Butterworth

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5331","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5331,"authors_free":[{"id":6172,"entry_id":5331,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":85,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Averroes","free_first_name":"","free_last_name":"","norm_person":{"id":85,"first_name":"","last_name":"","full_name":"Averroes","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/118505238","viaf_url":"http:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/19688718","db_url":"https:\/\/www.deutsche-biographie.de\/gnd118505238.html","from_claudius":0,"link":"bib?authors[]=Averroes"}},{"id":6173,"entry_id":5331,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":123,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":3,"role_name":"translator"},"free_name":"Charles E. Butterworth","free_first_name":"Charles E. ","free_last_name":"Butterworth","norm_person":{"id":123,"first_name":"","last_name":"","full_name":"Charles E. Butterworth","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/105338856X","viaf_url":"https:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/41853950","db_url":"NULL","from_claudius":0,"link":"bib?authors[]=Charles E. Butterworth"}}],"entry_title":"The Decisive Treatise","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"The Decisive Treatise"},"abstract":"","btype":2,"date":"2011","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"}],"authors":[{"id":85,"full_name":"Averroes","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5331,"section_of":5330,"pages":"123\u2013140","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5330,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Medieval Political Philosophy: A Sourcebook","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2011","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"","book":{"id":5330,"pubplace":"Ithaca & London","publisher":"Cornell University Press","series":"Agora","volume":"","edition_no":"2 (1st Ed. by Ralph Lerner & Muhsin Mahdi)","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6170,"entry_id":5330,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":"Joshua Parens","free_first_name":"Joshua","free_last_name":"Parens","norm_person":null},{"id":6171,"entry_id":5330,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":"Joseph C. Macfarland","free_first_name":"Joseph C. ","free_last_name":"Macfarland","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2011]}

"For Truth Does Not Oppose Truth". The Agreement of Divine Law and Philosophy in Averroës' The Book of the Decisive Treatise (Kitab Fasl al-Maqal), 2010
By: Terence J. Kleven
Title "For Truth Does Not Oppose Truth". The Agreement of Divine Law and Philosophy in Averroës' The Book of the Decisive Treatise (Kitab Fasl al-Maqal)
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2010
Published in Political Islam from Muhammad to Ahmadinejad. Defenders, Detractors, and Definitions
Pages 225–236
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Terence J. Kleven
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"1427","_score":null,"_source":{"id":1427,"authors_free":[{"id":1622,"entry_id":1427,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1332,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Terence J. Kleven","free_first_name":"Terence J.","free_last_name":"Kleven","norm_person":{"id":1332,"first_name":"Terence J.","last_name":"Kleven","full_name":"Terence J. Kleven","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/1050705157","viaf_url":"http:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/308213722","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=Terence J. Kleven"}}],"entry_title":"\"For Truth Does Not Oppose Truth\". The Agreement of Divine Law and Philosophy in Averro\u00ebs' The Book of the Decisive Treatise (Kitab Fasl al-Maqal)","title_transcript":null,"title_translation":null,"main_title":{"title":"\"For Truth Does Not Oppose Truth\". The Agreement of Divine Law and Philosophy in Averro\u00ebs' The Book of the Decisive Treatise (Kitab Fasl al-Maqal)"},"abstract":null,"btype":2,"date":"2010","language":"English","online_url":null,"doi_url":null,"ti_url":null,"categories":[{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"}],"authors":[{"id":1332,"full_name":"Terence J. Kleven","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":1427,"section_of":191,"pages":"225\u2013236","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":191,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"reference","type":4,"language":null,"title":"Political Islam from Muhammad to Ahmadinejad. Defenders, Detractors, and Definitions","title_transcript":null,"title_translation":null,"short_title":null,"has_no_author":0,"volume":null,"date":"2010","edition_no":null,"free_date":"2010","abstract":null,"republication_of":null,"online_url":null,"online_resources":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":null,"doi_url":null,"book":{"id":191,"pubplace":"Santa Barbara (CA)","publisher":"Praeger Security International","series":null,"volume":null,"edition_no":null,"valid_from":null,"valid_until":null}}},"article":null},"sort":[2010]}

The Decisive Treatise, 2010
By: Averroes,
Title The Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2010
Published in Philosophy in the Middle Ages. The Christian, Islamic and Jewish Traditions
Pages 289–304
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Averroes ,
Publisher(s)
Translator(s) George F. Hourani

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5329","_score":null,"_ignored":["booksection.book.abstract.keyword"],"_source":{"id":5329,"authors_free":[{"id":6168,"entry_id":5329,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":85,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Averroes","free_first_name":"","free_last_name":"","norm_person":{"id":85,"first_name":"","last_name":"","full_name":"Averroes","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/118505238","viaf_url":"http:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/19688718","db_url":"https:\/\/www.deutsche-biographie.de\/gnd118505238.html","from_claudius":0,"link":"bib?authors[]=Averroes"}},{"id":6169,"entry_id":5329,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1057,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":3,"role_name":"translator"},"free_name":"George F. Hourani","free_first_name":"George F. ","free_last_name":"Hourani","norm_person":{"id":1057,"first_name":"George F.","last_name":"Hourani","full_name":"George F. Hourani","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/102396547X","viaf_url":"https:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/59114912","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=George F. Hourani"}}],"entry_title":"The Decisive Treatise","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"The Decisive Treatise"},"abstract":"","btype":2,"date":"2010","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"}],"authors":[{"id":85,"full_name":"Averroes","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5329,"section_of":1921,"pages":"289\u2013304","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":1921,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":1726,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":1,"language":"en","title":"Philosophy in the Middle Ages. The Christian, Islamic and Jewish Traditions","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":0,"volume":null,"date":"2010","edition_no":null,"free_date":"1987","abstract":"Thomas Williams' revision of Arthur Hyman and James J. Walsh's classic compendium of writings in the Christian, Islamic, and Jewish medieval philosophical traditions expands the breadth of coverage that helped make its predecessor the best known and most widely used collection of its kind.\r\n\r\nThe third edition builds on the strengths of the second by preserving its essential shape while adding several important new texts--including works by Augustine, Boethius, Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, Anselm, al-Farabi, al-Ghazali, Ibn Rushd, Bonaventure, Thomas Aquinas, and John Duns Scotus--and featuring new translations of many others.\r\n\r\nThe volume has also been redesigned and its bibliographies updated with the needs of a new generation of students in mind.","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":1,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"","book":{"id":1921,"pubplace":"Indianapolis","publisher":"Hackett","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"3 (2nd Edition: 1987; 1st Edition: 1967)","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6165,"entry_id":1921,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":75,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":"Arthur Hyman","free_first_name":"Arthur","free_last_name":"Hyman","norm_person":{"id":75,"first_name":"Arthur","last_name":"Hyman","full_name":"Arthur Hyman","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/118863800","viaf_url":"","db_url":"NULL","from_claudius":0}},{"id":6166,"entry_id":1921,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":"James J. Walsh","free_first_name":"James J.","free_last_name":"Walsh","norm_person":null},{"id":6167,"entry_id":1921,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":"Thomas Williams","free_first_name":"Thomas","free_last_name":"Williams","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":[2010]}

À propos de l'almohadisme d'Averroés. L'anthropomorphisme (taǧsīm) dans la seconde version du Kitāb al-kašf ʿan manāhiǧ al-adilla, 2005
By: Marc Geoffroy
Title À propos de l'almohadisme d'Averroés. L'anthropomorphisme (taǧsīm) dans la seconde version du Kitāb al-kašf ʿan manāhiǧ al-adilla
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2005
Published in Los almohades. Problemas y perspectivas
Pages 853–894
Categories Law, Theology
Author(s) Marc Geoffroy
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"1390","_score":null,"_source":{"id":1390,"authors_free":[{"id":1582,"entry_id":1390,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":955,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Marc Geoffroy","free_first_name":"Marc","free_last_name":"Geoffroy","norm_person":{"id":955,"first_name":"Marc","last_name":"Geoffroy","full_name":"Marc Geoffroy","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/174155514","viaf_url":"https:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/7482512","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=Marc Geoffroy"}}],"entry_title":"\u00c0 propos de l'almohadisme d'Averro\u00e9s. L'anthropomorphisme (ta\u01e7s\u012bm) dans la seconde version du Kit\u0101b al-ka\u0161f \u02bfan man\u0101hi\u01e7 al-adilla","title_transcript":null,"title_translation":null,"main_title":{"title":"\u00c0 propos de l'almohadisme d'Averro\u00e9s. L'anthropomorphisme (ta\u01e7s\u012bm) dans la seconde version du Kit\u0101b al-ka\u0161f \u02bfan man\u0101hi\u01e7 al-adilla"},"abstract":null,"btype":2,"date":"2005","language":"French","online_url":null,"doi_url":null,"ti_url":null,"categories":[{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"},{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"}],"authors":[{"id":955,"full_name":"Marc Geoffroy","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":1390,"section_of":174,"pages":"853\u2013894","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":174,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"reference","type":4,"language":null,"title":"Los almohades. Problemas y perspectivas","title_transcript":null,"title_translation":null,"short_title":null,"has_no_author":0,"volume":null,"date":"2005","edition_no":null,"free_date":"2005","abstract":null,"republication_of":null,"online_url":null,"online_resources":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":null,"doi_url":null,"book":{"id":174,"pubplace":"Madrid","publisher":"Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cient\u00edficas","series":"Estudios \u00e1rabes e isl\u00e1micos","volume":"11","edition_no":null,"valid_from":null,"valid_until":null}}},"article":null},"sort":[2005]}

The Decisive Treatise, 2005
By: Averroes
Title The Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2005
Published in Classical Arabic Philosophy. An Anthology
Pages 309–330
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Averroes
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"1469","_score":null,"_source":{"id":1469,"authors_free":[{"id":1680,"entry_id":1469,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":85,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Averroes","free_first_name":null,"free_last_name":null,"norm_person":{"id":85,"first_name":"","last_name":"","full_name":"Averroes","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/118505238","viaf_url":"http:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/19688718","db_url":"https:\/\/www.deutsche-biographie.de\/gnd118505238.html","from_claudius":0,"link":"bib?authors[]=Averroes"}}],"entry_title":"The Decisive Treatise","title_transcript":null,"title_translation":null,"main_title":{"title":"The Decisive Treatise"},"abstract":null,"btype":2,"date":"2005","language":"English","online_url":null,"doi_url":null,"ti_url":null,"categories":[{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"}],"authors":[{"id":85,"full_name":"Averroes","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":1469,"section_of":205,"pages":"309\u2013330","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":205,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"reference","type":4,"language":null,"title":"Classical Arabic Philosophy. An Anthology","title_transcript":null,"title_translation":null,"short_title":null,"has_no_author":0,"volume":null,"date":"2005","edition_no":null,"free_date":"2005","abstract":null,"republication_of":null,"online_url":null,"online_resources":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":null,"doi_url":null,"book":{"id":205,"pubplace":"Indianapolis, Cambridge","publisher":"Hacket Publishing Company","series":null,"volume":null,"edition_no":null,"valid_from":null,"valid_until":null}}},"article":null},"sort":[2005]}

"For Truth Does Not Oppose Truth". The Agreement of Divine Law and Philosophy in Averroës' The Book of the Decisive Treatise (Kitab Fasl al-Maqal), 2010
By: Terence J. Kleven
Title "For Truth Does Not Oppose Truth". The Agreement of Divine Law and Philosophy in Averroës' The Book of the Decisive Treatise (Kitab Fasl al-Maqal)
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2010
Published in Political Islam from Muhammad to Ahmadinejad. Defenders, Detractors, and Definitions
Pages 225–236
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Terence J. Kleven
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"1427","_score":null,"_source":{"id":1427,"authors_free":[{"id":1622,"entry_id":1427,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1332,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Terence J. Kleven","free_first_name":"Terence J.","free_last_name":"Kleven","norm_person":{"id":1332,"first_name":"Terence J.","last_name":"Kleven","full_name":"Terence J. Kleven","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/1050705157","viaf_url":"http:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/308213722","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=Terence J. Kleven"}}],"entry_title":"\"For Truth Does Not Oppose Truth\". The Agreement of Divine Law and Philosophy in Averro\u00ebs' The Book of the Decisive Treatise (Kitab Fasl al-Maqal)","title_transcript":null,"title_translation":null,"main_title":{"title":"\"For Truth Does Not Oppose Truth\". The Agreement of Divine Law and Philosophy in Averro\u00ebs' The Book of the Decisive Treatise (Kitab Fasl al-Maqal)"},"abstract":null,"btype":2,"date":"2010","language":"English","online_url":null,"doi_url":null,"ti_url":null,"categories":[{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"}],"authors":[{"id":1332,"full_name":"Terence J. Kleven","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":1427,"section_of":191,"pages":"225\u2013236","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":191,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"reference","type":4,"language":null,"title":"Political Islam from Muhammad to Ahmadinejad. Defenders, Detractors, and Definitions","title_transcript":null,"title_translation":null,"short_title":null,"has_no_author":0,"volume":null,"date":"2010","edition_no":null,"free_date":"2010","abstract":null,"republication_of":null,"online_url":null,"online_resources":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":null,"doi_url":null,"book":{"id":191,"pubplace":"Santa Barbara (CA)","publisher":"Praeger Security International","series":null,"volume":null,"edition_no":null,"valid_from":null,"valid_until":null}}},"article":null},"sort":["\"For Truth Does Not Oppose Truth\". The Agreement of Divine Law and Philosophy in Averro\u00ebs' The Book of the Decisive Treatise (Kitab Fasl al-Maqal)"]}

An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Karen Taliaferro
Title An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 182–200
Categories Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Law
Author(s) Karen Taliaferro
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
“Of what use,” Ralph Lerner asks in his introduction to Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” “is this pagan closet philosophy to men who already hold what they believe to be the inestimable gift of a divinely revealed Law, a sharīʿa?” In other words, once one has God's direct revelation concerning how to live, does one need philosophy? The answer to this question matters both for the standing of falsafa (Hellenistic philosophy) in Islamic intellectual history as well as for ongoing disputes in Islamic societies concerning the respective roles of sharīʿa and human wisdom. Does divinely revealed Law, sharīʿa, yield the same knowledge as philosophy, or ḥikma (literally “wisdom”), to use Averroes's terms in the Decisive Treatise? Or is there something necessary in each that the other cannot supply? This question conceals something of a dilemma. If the first formulation is correct, one or the other of sharīʿa or ḥikma would seem to be redundant—a charge Averroes himself addresses in the Commentary on Plato's “Republic,” as I discuss below. If, on the other hand, philosophy is needed in addition to sharīʿa, this can call into question the sufficiency of revelation. This returns us to Lerner's question above, for if the sharīʿa represents the fullness of divine revelation, to claim that it needs the merely human ḥikma may be blasphemous. This essay addresses the relationship between sharīʿa and human wisdom through a reading of Averroes's Decisive Treatise and his Commentary on Plato's “Republic.” I attempt to show that Averroes's firm reliance on teleology in the Commentary complements what would otherwise appear to be the primacy of sharīʿa in the Decisive Treatise. Together, I argue, these two texts paint a clearer picture of the interdependence of ḥikma and sharīʿa than either would alone suggest. Traditional interpretations of the two works suggest dramatically different messages of Averroes concerning the respective standings of sharīʿa and ḥikma. Ralph Lerner and E. I. J. Rosenthal, each a translator of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's “Republic” (hereafter Commentary), disagreed rather sharply on the status of human wisdom vis-à-vis sharīʿa in Averroes's thought. To Rosenthal, in both the Decisive Treatise and the Commentary, Averroes “establishes in unequivocal terms the supreme authority of the Sharīʿa.”

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5354","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5354,"authors_free":[{"id":6205,"entry_id":5354,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1741,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Karen Taliaferro","free_first_name":"Karen","free_last_name":"Taliaferro","norm_person":{"id":1741,"first_name":"Karen","last_name":"Taliaferro","full_name":"Karen Taliaferro","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":null,"dnb_url":"https:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/1021039934","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":null,"link":"bib?authors[]=Karen Taliaferro"}}],"entry_title":"An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d"},"abstract":"\u201cOf what use,\u201d Ralph Lerner asks in his introduction to Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic,\u201d \u201cis this pagan closet philosophy to men who already hold what they believe to be the inestimable gift of a divinely revealed Law, a shar\u012b\u02bfa?\u201d In other words, once one has God's direct revelation concerning how to live, does one need philosophy? The answer to this question matters both for the standing of falsafa (Hellenistic philosophy) in Islamic intellectual history as well as for ongoing disputes in Islamic societies concerning the respective roles of shar\u012b\u02bfa and human wisdom. Does divinely revealed Law, shar\u012b\u02bfa, yield the same knowledge as philosophy, or \u1e25ikma (literally \u201cwisdom\u201d), to use Averroes's terms in the Decisive Treatise? Or is there something necessary in each that the other cannot supply? This question conceals something of a dilemma. If the first formulation is correct, one or the other of shar\u012b\u02bfa or \u1e25ikma would seem to be redundant\u2014a charge Averroes himself addresses in the Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic,\u201d as I discuss below. If, on the other hand, philosophy is needed in addition to shar\u012b\u02bfa, this can call into question the sufficiency of revelation. This returns us to Lerner's question above, for if the shar\u012b\u02bfa represents the fullness of divine revelation, to claim that it needs the merely human \u1e25ikma may be blasphemous. This essay addresses the relationship between shar\u012b\u02bfa and human wisdom through a reading of Averroes's Decisive Treatise and his Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic.\u201d I attempt to show that Averroes's firm reliance on teleology in the Commentary complements what would otherwise appear to be the primacy of shar\u012b\u02bfa in the Decisive Treatise. Together, I argue, these two texts paint a clearer picture of the interdependence of \u1e25ikma and shar\u012b\u02bfa than either would alone suggest.\r\n\r\nTraditional interpretations of the two works suggest dramatically different messages of Averroes concerning the respective standings of shar\u012b\u02bfa and \u1e25ikma. Ralph Lerner and E. I. J. Rosenthal, each a translator of Averroes's Commentary on Plato's \u201cRepublic\u201d (hereafter Commentary), disagreed rather sharply on the status of human wisdom vis-\u00e0-vis shar\u012b\u02bfa in Averroes's thought. To Rosenthal, in both the Decisive Treatise and the Commentary, Averroes \u201cestablishes in unequivocal terms the supreme authority of the Shar\u012b\u02bfa.\u201d","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.009","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":47,"category_name":"Relation between Philosophy and Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Relation between Philosophy and Theology"},{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"}],"authors":[{"id":1741,"full_name":"Karen Taliaferro","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5354,"section_of":5346,"pages":"182\u2013200","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":["An Indecisive Truth: Divine Law and Philosophy in the Decisive Treatise and Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d"]}

Averroes (1179): Massgebliche Abhandlung, 2018
By: Mario C. Wintersteiger
Title Averroes (1179): Massgebliche Abhandlung
Type Book Section
Language German
Date 2018
Published in Religionsphilosophie und Religionskritik. Ein Handbuch
Pages 95–102
Categories Politics, Theology, Law
Author(s) Mario C. Wintersteiger
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5025","_score":null,"_ignored":["booksection.book.abstract.keyword"],"_source":{"id":5025,"authors_free":[{"id":5763,"entry_id":5025,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1687,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Mario C. Wintersteiger","free_first_name":"Mario C.","free_last_name":"Wintersteiger","norm_person":{"id":1687,"first_name":"Mario C. ","last_name":"Wintersteiger ","full_name":"Mario C. Wintersteiger ","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":null,"dnb_url":"https:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/1059300621","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":null,"link":"bib?authors[]=Mario C. Wintersteiger "}}],"entry_title":"Averroes (1179): Massgebliche Abhandlung","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Averroes (1179): Massgebliche Abhandlung"},"abstract":"","btype":2,"date":"2018","language":"German","online_url":"","doi_url":"","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":4,"category_name":"Politics","link":"bib?categories[]=Politics"},{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"}],"authors":[{"id":1687,"full_name":"Mario C. Wintersteiger ","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5025,"section_of":5024,"pages":"95\u2013102","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5024,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"de","title":"Religionsphilosophie und Religionskritik. Ein Handbuch","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2018","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"Die Wiederkehr der Religion ist in aller Munde. Darin artikuliert sich auch ein Unbehagen an den Entwicklungen einer Moderne, in der die wissenschaftlich-technische Vernunft an ihre Grenzen zu sto\u00dfen scheint. Vor diesem Hintergrund ist es das Ziel des Handbuchs, die gegenw\u00e4rtig viel diskutierten Chancen, aber auch die Gefahren, die mit einer R\u00fcckkehr der Religion verbunden sind, aus der Perspektive der Religionsphilosophie zu reflektieren. Vorgestellt werden 80 Werke aus fast 2500 Jahren westlicher Geistesgeschichte von Platon bis Charles Taylor, die von ausgewiesenen Experten in ihren historischen Kontext gestellt und in ihrer Wirkungsgeschichte analysiert werden. Ein Handbuch f\u00fcr alle, die an Religionsgeschichte, Religionswissenschaft, Theologie und Philosophie interessiert sind.","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"","book":{"id":5024,"pubplace":"Berlin","publisher":"Suhrkamp","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null}}},"article":null},"sort":["Averroes (1179): Massgebliche Abhandlung"]}

Averroes (d. 1198), The Decisive Treatise, 2016
By: Catarina Belo
Title Averroes (d. 1198), The Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2016
Published in The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Philosophy
Pages 278–295
Categories Relation between Philosophy and Theology, Theology, Politics, Law
Author(s) Catarina Belo
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
In his Decisive Treatise, Andalusian philosopher Averroes (1126–1198) analyzes the relation between philosophy and religion from an Islamic legal perspective. He emphasizes the obligation upon some Muslims to study philosophy and how philosophy can be considered one of the Islamic sciences. He mentions the significance of a nonliteral reading of the Qur’ān and defends the compatibility between Aristotelian philosophy and Islamic religion.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5213","_score":null,"_ignored":["booksection.book.abstract.keyword"],"_source":{"id":5213,"authors_free":[{"id":6014,"entry_id":5213,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1254,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Catarina Belo","free_first_name":"Catarina","free_last_name":"Belo","norm_person":{"id":1254,"first_name":"Catarina","last_name":"Belo","full_name":"Catarina Belo","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/132895374","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=Catarina Belo"}}],"entry_title":"Averroes (d. 1198), The Decisive Treatise","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"Averroes (d. 1198), The Decisive Treatise"},"abstract":"In his Decisive Treatise, Andalusian philosopher Averroes (1126\u20131198) analyzes the relation between philosophy and religion from an Islamic legal perspective. He emphasizes the obligation upon some Muslims to study philosophy and how philosophy can be considered one of the Islamic sciences. He mentions the significance of a nonliteral reading of the Qur\u2019\u0101n and defends the compatibility between Aristotelian philosophy and Islamic religion.","btype":2,"date":"2016","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"10.1093\/oxfordhb\/9780199917389.013.37","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":47,"category_name":"Relation between Philosophy and Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Relation between Philosophy and Theology"},{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":4,"category_name":"Politics","link":"bib?categories[]=Politics"},{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"}],"authors":[{"id":1254,"full_name":"Catarina Belo","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5213,"section_of":5212,"pages":"278\u2013295","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5212,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Philosophy","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2016","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"The study of Islamic philosophy has recently entered a new and exciting phase. Both the received canon of Islamic philosophers and the grand narrative of the course of Islamic philosophy are in the process of being radically questioned and revised. The bulk of twentieth-century Western scholarship on Arabic or Islamic philosophy focused on the period from the ninth century to the twelfth. It is a measure of the transformation that is currently underway in the field that the present Handbook gives roughly equal weight to every century from the ninth to the twentieth. The Handbook differs from previous overviews in another significant way: It is work-centered rather than person- or theme-centered. This format is intended to give readers a better sense of what a work in Islamic philosophy looks like, and of the issues, concepts, and arguments that are at play in works belonging to various periods and subfields within Islamic philosophy.","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"10.1093\/oxfordhb\/9780199917389.001.0001","book":{"id":5212,"pubplace":"New York, NY","publisher":"Oxford University Press","series":"Oxford handbooks ","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null}}},"article":null},"sort":["Averroes (d. 1198), The Decisive Treatise"]}

The Decisive Treatise, 2005
By: Averroes
Title The Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2005
Published in Classical Arabic Philosophy. An Anthology
Pages 309–330
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Averroes
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"1469","_score":null,"_source":{"id":1469,"authors_free":[{"id":1680,"entry_id":1469,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":85,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Averroes","free_first_name":null,"free_last_name":null,"norm_person":{"id":85,"first_name":"","last_name":"","full_name":"Averroes","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/118505238","viaf_url":"http:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/19688718","db_url":"https:\/\/www.deutsche-biographie.de\/gnd118505238.html","from_claudius":0,"link":"bib?authors[]=Averroes"}}],"entry_title":"The Decisive Treatise","title_transcript":null,"title_translation":null,"main_title":{"title":"The Decisive Treatise"},"abstract":null,"btype":2,"date":"2005","language":"English","online_url":null,"doi_url":null,"ti_url":null,"categories":[{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"}],"authors":[{"id":85,"full_name":"Averroes","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":1469,"section_of":205,"pages":"309\u2013330","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":205,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"reference","type":4,"language":null,"title":"Classical Arabic Philosophy. An Anthology","title_transcript":null,"title_translation":null,"short_title":null,"has_no_author":0,"volume":null,"date":"2005","edition_no":null,"free_date":"2005","abstract":null,"republication_of":null,"online_url":null,"online_resources":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":null,"doi_url":null,"book":{"id":205,"pubplace":"Indianapolis, Cambridge","publisher":"Hacket Publishing Company","series":null,"volume":null,"edition_no":null,"valid_from":null,"valid_until":null}}},"article":null},"sort":["The Decisive Treatise"]}

The Decisive Treatise, 2010
By: Averroes,
Title The Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2010
Published in Philosophy in the Middle Ages. The Christian, Islamic and Jewish Traditions
Pages 289–304
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Averroes ,
Publisher(s)
Translator(s) George F. Hourani

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5329","_score":null,"_ignored":["booksection.book.abstract.keyword"],"_source":{"id":5329,"authors_free":[{"id":6168,"entry_id":5329,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":85,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Averroes","free_first_name":"","free_last_name":"","norm_person":{"id":85,"first_name":"","last_name":"","full_name":"Averroes","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/118505238","viaf_url":"http:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/19688718","db_url":"https:\/\/www.deutsche-biographie.de\/gnd118505238.html","from_claudius":0,"link":"bib?authors[]=Averroes"}},{"id":6169,"entry_id":5329,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1057,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":3,"role_name":"translator"},"free_name":"George F. Hourani","free_first_name":"George F. ","free_last_name":"Hourani","norm_person":{"id":1057,"first_name":"George F.","last_name":"Hourani","full_name":"George F. Hourani","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/102396547X","viaf_url":"https:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/59114912","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=George F. Hourani"}}],"entry_title":"The Decisive Treatise","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"The Decisive Treatise"},"abstract":"","btype":2,"date":"2010","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"}],"authors":[{"id":85,"full_name":"Averroes","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5329,"section_of":1921,"pages":"289\u2013304","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":1921,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":1726,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":1,"language":"en","title":"Philosophy in the Middle Ages. The Christian, Islamic and Jewish Traditions","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":0,"volume":null,"date":"2010","edition_no":null,"free_date":"1987","abstract":"Thomas Williams' revision of Arthur Hyman and James J. Walsh's classic compendium of writings in the Christian, Islamic, and Jewish medieval philosophical traditions expands the breadth of coverage that helped make its predecessor the best known and most widely used collection of its kind.\r\n\r\nThe third edition builds on the strengths of the second by preserving its essential shape while adding several important new texts--including works by Augustine, Boethius, Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, Anselm, al-Farabi, al-Ghazali, Ibn Rushd, Bonaventure, Thomas Aquinas, and John Duns Scotus--and featuring new translations of many others.\r\n\r\nThe volume has also been redesigned and its bibliographies updated with the needs of a new generation of students in mind.","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":1,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"","book":{"id":1921,"pubplace":"Indianapolis","publisher":"Hackett","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"3 (2nd Edition: 1987; 1st Edition: 1967)","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6165,"entry_id":1921,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":75,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":"Arthur Hyman","free_first_name":"Arthur","free_last_name":"Hyman","norm_person":{"id":75,"first_name":"Arthur","last_name":"Hyman","full_name":"Arthur Hyman","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/118863800","viaf_url":"","db_url":"NULL","from_claudius":0}},{"id":6166,"entry_id":1921,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":"James J. Walsh","free_first_name":"James J.","free_last_name":"Walsh","norm_person":null},{"id":6167,"entry_id":1921,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":"Thomas Williams","free_first_name":"Thomas","free_last_name":"Williams","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":["The Decisive Treatise"]}

The Decisive Treatise, 2011
By: Averroes,
Title The Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2011
Published in Medieval Political Philosophy: A Sourcebook
Pages 123–140
Categories Theology, Law
Author(s) Averroes ,
Publisher(s)
Translator(s) Charles E. Butterworth

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5331","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5331,"authors_free":[{"id":6172,"entry_id":5331,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":85,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Averroes","free_first_name":"","free_last_name":"","norm_person":{"id":85,"first_name":"","last_name":"","full_name":"Averroes","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/118505238","viaf_url":"http:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/19688718","db_url":"https:\/\/www.deutsche-biographie.de\/gnd118505238.html","from_claudius":0,"link":"bib?authors[]=Averroes"}},{"id":6173,"entry_id":5331,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":123,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":3,"role_name":"translator"},"free_name":"Charles E. Butterworth","free_first_name":"Charles E. ","free_last_name":"Butterworth","norm_person":{"id":123,"first_name":"","last_name":"","full_name":"Charles E. Butterworth","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/105338856X","viaf_url":"https:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/41853950","db_url":"NULL","from_claudius":0,"link":"bib?authors[]=Charles E. Butterworth"}}],"entry_title":"The Decisive Treatise","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"The Decisive Treatise"},"abstract":"","btype":2,"date":"2011","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"}],"authors":[{"id":85,"full_name":"Averroes","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5331,"section_of":5330,"pages":"123\u2013140","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5330,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Medieval Political Philosophy: A Sourcebook","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2011","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"","book":{"id":5330,"pubplace":"Ithaca & London","publisher":"Cornell University Press","series":"Agora","volume":"","edition_no":"2 (1st Ed. by Ralph Lerner & Muhsin Mahdi)","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6170,"entry_id":5330,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":"Joshua Parens","free_first_name":"Joshua","free_last_name":"Parens","norm_person":null},{"id":6171,"entry_id":5330,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":"Joseph C. Macfarland","free_first_name":"Joseph C. ","free_last_name":"Macfarland","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":["The Decisive Treatise"]}

The Intention of the Law and the Lawgiver in Averroes's Decisive Treatise, 2011
By: Rima Pavalko
Title The Intention of the Law and the Lawgiver in Averroes's Decisive Treatise
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2011
Published in La lumière de l'intellect. La pensée scientifique et philosophique d'Averroès dans son temps. Actes du IVe colloque international de la SIHSPAI (Société internationale d'histoire des sciences et de la philosophie arabes et islamiques). Cordoue, 9–12 décembre 1998
Pages 487–492
Categories Law, Theology
Author(s) Rima Pavalko
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"1526","_score":null,"_source":{"id":1526,"authors_free":[{"id":1752,"entry_id":1526,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":1377,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Rima Pavalko","free_first_name":"Rima","free_last_name":"Pavalko","norm_person":{"id":1377,"first_name":"Rima","last_name":"Pavalko","full_name":"Rima Pavalko","short_ident":"RimPav","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"","viaf_url":"","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=Rima Pavalko"}}],"entry_title":"The Intention of the Law and the Lawgiver in Averroes's Decisive Treatise","title_transcript":null,"title_translation":null,"main_title":{"title":"The Intention of the Law and the Lawgiver in Averroes's Decisive Treatise"},"abstract":null,"btype":2,"date":"2011","language":"English","online_url":null,"doi_url":null,"ti_url":null,"categories":[{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"},{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"}],"authors":[{"id":1377,"full_name":"Rima Pavalko","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":1526,"section_of":211,"pages":"487\u2013492","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":211,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"reference","type":4,"language":null,"title":"La lumi\u00e8re de l'intellect. La pens\u00e9e scientifique et philosophique d'Averro\u00e8s dans son temps. Actes du IVe colloque international de la SIHSPAI (Soci\u00e9t\u00e9 internationale d'histoire des sciences et de la philosophie arabes et islamiques). Cordoue, 9\u201312 d\u00e9cembre 1998","title_transcript":null,"title_translation":null,"short_title":null,"has_no_author":0,"volume":null,"date":"2011","edition_no":null,"free_date":"2011","abstract":null,"republication_of":null,"online_url":null,"online_resources":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":null,"doi_url":null,"book":{"id":211,"pubplace":"Leuven","publisher":"Peeters","series":"Ancient and Classical Sciences and Philosophy","volume":null,"edition_no":null,"valid_from":null,"valid_until":null}}},"article":null},"sort":["The Intention of the Law and the Lawgiver in Averroes's Decisive Treatise"]}

The Sharīʿa of the Republic: Islamic Law and Philosophy in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”, 2022
By: Rasoul Namazi
Title The Sharīʿa of the Republic: Islamic Law and Philosophy in Averroes’s Commentary on Plato’s “Republic”
Type Book Section
Language English
Date 2022
Published in Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary
Pages 160–181
Categories Law, Theology, Relation between Philosophy and Theology
Author(s) Rasoul Namazi
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)
Averroes is one of the few Muslim philosophers whose work has had a considerable impact on European thought; the phenomenon of Averroism has been a part of the common European intellectual heritage for several centuries. One of the most enduring and widely held views, or rather myths, about Averroes for centuries has been that he was a fierce enemy of religion. This view was partly rejected by Ernest Renan's classic nineteenth-century study, in which he critiqued what he called “la legende d’Averroes.” Although a spirited follower of the Enlightenment's cult of science and battle against superstition, and despite his admiration for Averroes as a figure who tried to keep the spirit of reason alive during religious ages, Renan remained unconvinced by the charges leveled against the Arab philosopher. He tried to show how much this view of Averroes was a construction of the European mind in its own battles over heterodoxy and free thought. Renan did not, however, settle for a narrative about the intellectual history of European Averroism, but went beyond this, depicting Averroes's rationalism and Islamic beliefs as two separate, independent spheres that tend not to conflict with each other. That is to say, Averroes could have been a good Muslim as well as a good philosopher. The historicist presuppositions of Renan's thought, however—presuppositions according to which every system of thought is a product of its own time—made his perspective on Averroes incoherent and open to future revisions. Leon Gauthier, although critical of Renan, also tried to circumvent the question of the relationship between Islam and philosophy in Averroes's work. He did this by depicting Islam as a religion without substantial doctrinal content, thereby making possible its compatibility with Greek philosophy. Gauthier therefore claimed that Averroes's thought could be seen as “un rationalisme sans reserve [an unqualified rationalism]” without necessarily rendering Averroes an unbeliever. Scholars like A. F. Mehren, Max Horten, and Asìn Palacio avoided such unsatisfactory solutions by wholeheartedly embracing the view that, in the end, Islamic philosophy is more Islamic than philosophic. They argued that the Islamic philosophy of the falāsifa is an outgrowth of Islamic beliefs expressed in the language of Greek philosophy, and fully in the service of Muslim revelation; therefore, according to these scholars, there is no real conflict between Averroes's philosophy and the tenets of Islam.

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"5353","_score":null,"_source":{"id":5353,"authors_free":[{"id":6204,"entry_id":5353,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Rasoul Namazi","free_first_name":"Rasoul ","free_last_name":"Namazi","norm_person":null}],"entry_title":"The Shar\u012b\u02bfa of the Republic: Islamic Law and Philosophy in Averroes\u2019s Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","main_title":{"title":"The Shar\u012b\u02bfa of the Republic: Islamic Law and Philosophy in Averroes\u2019s Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d"},"abstract":"Averroes is one of the few Muslim philosophers whose work has had a considerable impact on European thought; the phenomenon of Averroism has been a part of the common European intellectual heritage for several centuries. One of the most enduring and widely held views, or rather myths, about Averroes for centuries has been that he was a fierce enemy of religion. This view was partly rejected by Ernest Renan's classic nineteenth-century study, in which he critiqued what he called \u201cla legende d\u2019Averroes.\u201d Although a spirited follower of the Enlightenment's cult of science and battle against superstition, and despite his admiration for Averroes as a figure who tried to keep the spirit of reason alive during religious ages, Renan remained unconvinced by the charges leveled against the Arab philosopher. He tried to show how much this view of Averroes was a construction of the European mind in its own battles over heterodoxy and free thought. Renan did not, however, settle for a narrative about the intellectual history of European Averroism, but went beyond this, depicting Averroes's rationalism and Islamic beliefs as two separate, independent spheres that tend not to conflict with each other. That is to say, Averroes could have been a good Muslim as well as a good philosopher. The historicist presuppositions of Renan's thought, however\u2014presuppositions according to which every system of thought is a product of its own time\u2014made his perspective on Averroes incoherent and open to future revisions. Leon Gauthier, although critical of Renan, also tried to circumvent the question of the relationship between Islam and philosophy in Averroes's work. He did this by depicting Islam as a religion without substantial doctrinal content, thereby making possible its compatibility with Greek philosophy. Gauthier therefore claimed that Averroes's thought could be seen as \u201cun rationalisme sans reserve [an unqualified rationalism]\u201d without necessarily rendering Averroes an unbeliever. Scholars like A. F. Mehren, Max Horten, and As\u00ecn Palacio avoided such unsatisfactory solutions by wholeheartedly embracing the view that, in the end, Islamic philosophy is more Islamic than philosophic. They argued that the Islamic philosophy of the fal\u0101sifa is an outgrowth of Islamic beliefs expressed in the language of Greek philosophy, and fully in the service of Muslim revelation; therefore, according to these scholars, there is no real conflict between Averroes's philosophy and the tenets of Islam.","btype":2,"date":"2022","language":"English","online_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983.008","ti_url":"","categories":[{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"},{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"},{"id":47,"category_name":"Relation between Philosophy and Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Relation between Philosophy and Theology"}],"authors":[],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":5353,"section_of":5346,"pages":"160\u2013181","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":5346,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"bibliography","type":4,"language":"en","title":"Plato's Republic in the Islamic Context. New Perspectives on Averroes's Commentary","title_transcript":"","title_translation":"","short_title":"","has_no_author":null,"volume":null,"date":"2022","edition_no":null,"free_date":null,"abstract":"","republication_of":0,"online_url":"","online_resources":null,"translation_of":"0","new_edition_of":"0","is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":"","doi_url":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1017\/9781800104983","book":{"id":5346,"pubplace":"","publisher":" Boydell & Brewer","series":"","volume":"","edition_no":"","valid_from":null,"valid_until":null},"persons":[{"id":6196,"entry_id":5346,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":null,"person_id":null,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":2,"role_name":"editor"},"free_name":" Alexander Orwin","free_first_name":" Alexander","free_last_name":" Orwin","norm_person":null}]}},"article":null},"sort":["The Shar\u012b\u02bfa of the Republic: Islamic Law and Philosophy in Averroes\u2019s Commentary on Plato\u2019s \u201cRepublic\u201d"]}

À propos de l'almohadisme d'Averroés. L'anthropomorphisme (taǧsīm) dans la seconde version du Kitāb al-kašf ʿan manāhiǧ al-adilla, 2005
By: Marc Geoffroy
Title À propos de l'almohadisme d'Averroés. L'anthropomorphisme (taǧsīm) dans la seconde version du Kitāb al-kašf ʿan manāhiǧ al-adilla
Type Book Section
Language French
Date 2005
Published in Los almohades. Problemas y perspectivas
Pages 853–894
Categories Law, Theology
Author(s) Marc Geoffroy
Publisher(s)
Translator(s)

{"_index":"bib","_type":"_doc","_id":"1390","_score":null,"_source":{"id":1390,"authors_free":[{"id":1582,"entry_id":1390,"agent_type":"person","is_normalised":1,"person_id":955,"institution_id":null,"role":{"id":1,"role_name":"author"},"free_name":"Marc Geoffroy","free_first_name":"Marc","free_last_name":"Geoffroy","norm_person":{"id":955,"first_name":"Marc","last_name":"Geoffroy","full_name":"Marc Geoffroy","short_ident":"","is_classical_name":0,"dnb_url":"http:\/\/d-nb.info\/gnd\/174155514","viaf_url":"https:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/7482512","db_url":"","from_claudius":1,"link":"bib?authors[]=Marc Geoffroy"}}],"entry_title":"\u00c0 propos de l'almohadisme d'Averro\u00e9s. L'anthropomorphisme (ta\u01e7s\u012bm) dans la seconde version du Kit\u0101b al-ka\u0161f \u02bfan man\u0101hi\u01e7 al-adilla","title_transcript":null,"title_translation":null,"main_title":{"title":"\u00c0 propos de l'almohadisme d'Averro\u00e9s. L'anthropomorphisme (ta\u01e7s\u012bm) dans la seconde version du Kit\u0101b al-ka\u0161f \u02bfan man\u0101hi\u01e7 al-adilla"},"abstract":null,"btype":2,"date":"2005","language":"French","online_url":null,"doi_url":null,"ti_url":null,"categories":[{"id":26,"category_name":"Law","link":"bib?categories[]=Law"},{"id":39,"category_name":"Theology","link":"bib?categories[]=Theology"}],"authors":[{"id":955,"full_name":"Marc Geoffroy","role":1}],"works":[],"republication_of":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"book":null,"booksection":{"id":1390,"section_of":174,"pages":"853\u2013894","is_catalog":null,"book":{"id":174,"bilderberg_idno":null,"dare_idno":null,"catalog_idno":null,"entry_type":"reference","type":4,"language":null,"title":"Los almohades. Problemas y perspectivas","title_transcript":null,"title_translation":null,"short_title":null,"has_no_author":0,"volume":null,"date":"2005","edition_no":null,"free_date":"2005","abstract":null,"republication_of":null,"online_url":null,"online_resources":null,"translation_of":null,"new_edition_of":null,"is_catalog":0,"in_bibliography":0,"is_inactive":0,"notes":null,"ti_url":null,"doi_url":null,"book":{"id":174,"pubplace":"Madrid","publisher":"Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cient\u00edficas","series":"Estudios \u00e1rabes e isl\u00e1micos","volume":"11","edition_no":null,"valid_from":null,"valid_until":null}}},"article":null},"sort":["\u00c0 propos de l'almohadisme d'Averro\u00e9s. L'anthropomorphisme (ta\u01e7s\u012bm) dans la seconde version du Kit\u0101b al-ka\u0161f \u02bfan man\u0101hi\u01e7 al-adilla"]}

  • PAGE 1 OF 1